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dc.contributor.authorBallen, Cissy J.
dc.contributor.authorAguillon, Stepfanie M.
dc.contributor.authorAwwad, Azza
dc.contributor.authorBjune, Anne Elisabeth
dc.contributor.authorChallou, Daniel
dc.contributor.authorDrake, Abby Grace
dc.contributor.authorDriessen, Michelle
dc.contributor.authorEllozy, Aziza
dc.contributor.authorFerry, Vivian E.
dc.contributor.authorGoldberg, Emma E.
dc.contributor.authorHarcombe, William
dc.contributor.authorJensen, Steve
dc.contributor.authorJørgensen, Christian
dc.contributor.authorKoth, Zoe
dc.contributor.authorMcGaugh, Suzanne
dc.contributor.authorMitry, Caroline
dc.contributor.authorMosher, Bryan
dc.contributor.authorMostafa, Hoda
dc.contributor.authorPetipas, Renee H.
dc.contributor.authorSoneral, Paula A.G.
dc.contributor.authorWatters, Shana
dc.contributor.authorWassenberg, Deena
dc.contributor.authorWeiss, Stacey L.
dc.contributor.authorYonas, Azariah
dc.contributor.authorZamudio, Kelly R.
dc.contributor.authorCotner, Sehoya Harris
dc.date.accessioned2020-05-04T12:07:41Z
dc.date.available2020-05-04T12:07:41Z
dc.date.issued2019
dc.PublishedBallen CJ, Aguillon, Awwad, Bjune AE, Challou, Drake, Driessen, Ellozy, Ferry, Goldberg, Harcombe, Jensen, Jørgensen C, Koth, McGaugh, Mitry, Mosher, Mostafa, Petipas, Soneral, Watters, Wassenberg, Weiss, Yonas, Zamudio, Cotner SH. Smaller classes promote equitable student participation in STEM. BioScience. 2019;69(8):669-680eng
dc.identifier.issn0006-3568en_US
dc.identifier.issn1525-3244en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1956/22078
dc.descriptionUnder embargo until: 2020-07-24
dc.description.abstractAs science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) classrooms in higher education transition from lecturing to active learning, the frequency of student interactions in class increases. Previous research documents a gender bias in participation, with women participating less than would be expected on the basis of their numeric proportions. In the present study, we asked which attributes of the learning environment contribute to decreased female participation: the abundance of in-class interactions, the diversity of interactions, the proportion of women in class, the instructor's gender, the class size, and whether the course targeted lower division (first and second year) or upper division (third or fourth year) students. We calculated likelihood ratios of female participation from over 5300 student–instructor interactions observed across multiple institutions. We falsified several alternative hypotheses and demonstrate that increasing class size has the largest negative effect. We also found that when the instructors used a diverse range of teaching strategies, the women were more likely to participate after small-group discussions.en_US
dc.language.isoengeng
dc.publisherOxford University Pressen_US
dc.titleSmaller classes promote equitable student participation in STEMen_US
dc.typePeer reviewed
dc.typeJournal article
dc.date.updated2019-11-15T10:12:21Z
dc.description.versionacceptedVersionen_US
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2019 The Author(s). All rights reserveden_US
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1093/biosci/biz069
dc.identifier.cristin1729856
dc.source.journalBioScience


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