Adenoviral mediated mono delivery of BMP2 is superior to the combined delivery of BMP2 and VEGFA in bone regeneration in a critical-sized rat calvarial bone defect
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Apart from osteogenesis, neovascularization of the defect area is an important determinant for successful bone healing. Accordingly, several studies have employed the combined delivery of VEGFA and BMP2 for bone regeneration. Nevertheless, the outcomes of these studies are highly variable. The aim of our study was to compare the effectiveness of adenoviral mediated delivery of BMP2 alone and in combination with VEGFA in rat bone marrow stromal cells (rBMSC) seeded on a poly(LLA-co-CL) scaffold in angiogenesis and osteogenesis using a critical-sized rat calvarial defect model. Both mono delivery of BMP2 and the combined delivery of a lower ratio of VEGFA and BMP2 (1:4) led to up-regulation of osteogenic genes (Alpl and Runx2) and increased calcium deposition in vitro, compared with the GFP control. Micro computed tomography (microCT) analysis of the rat calvarial defect at 8 weeks showed that the mono delivery of BMP2 (43.37 ± 3.55% defect closure) was the most effective in healing the bone defect, followed by the combined delivery of BMP2 and VEGFA (27.86 ± 2.89%) and other controls. Histological and molecular analyses supported the microCT findings. Analysis of the angiogenesis, however, showed that both mono delivery of BMP2 and combined delivery of BMP2 and VEGFA had similar angiogenic effect in the calvarial defects. Examination of the key genes related to host response against the adenoviral vectors showed that the current model system was not associated with adverse immune response. Overall, the results show that the mono delivery of BMP2 was superior to the combined delivery of BMP2 and VEGFA in healing the critical-sized rat calvarial bone defect. These findings underscore the importance of appropriate growth factor combination for the successful outcome in bone regeneration.