Label-free monitoring of uptake and toxicity of endoprosthetic wear particles in human cell cultures
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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The evaluation of the biological effects of endoprosthetic wear particles on cells in vitro relies on a variety of test assays. However, most of these methods are susceptible to particle-induced interferences; therefore, label-free testing approaches emerge as more reliable alternatives. In this study, impedance-based real-time monitoring of cellular viability and metabolic activity were performed following exposure to metallic and ceramic wear particles. Moreover, label-free imaging of particle-exposed cells was done by high-resolution darkfield microscopy (HR-ODM) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The isolated human fibroblasts were exposed to CoCr28Mo6 and alumina matrix composite (AMC) ceramic particles. HR-ODM and FESEM revealed ingested particles. For impedance measurements, cells were seeded on gold-plated microelectrodes. Cellular behavior was monitored over a period of 48 h. CoCr28Mo6 and AMC particle exposure affected cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner, i.e., 0.01 mg/mL particle solutions led to small changes in cell viability, while 0.05 mg/mL resulted in a significant reduction of viability. The effects were more pronounced after exposure to CoCr28Mo6 particles. The results were in line with light and darkfield microcopy observations indicating that the chosen methods are valuable tools to assess cytotoxicity and cellular behavior following exposure to endoprosthetic wear particles.