Intramuscular vaccination of Atlantic lumpfish (Cyclopterus lumpus L.) induces inflammatory reactions and local immunoglobulin M production at the vaccine administration site
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Atlantic lumpfish were vaccinated by intramuscular (im) or intraperitoneal (ip) injection with a multivalent oil‐based vaccine, while control fish were injected with phosphate‐buffered saline. Four lumpfish per group were sampled for skin/muscle and head kidney tissue at 0, 2, 7, 21 and 42 days post‐immunization (dpi) for histopathology and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Gene expressions of secretory IgM, membrane‐bound IgM, IgD, TCRα, CD3ε and MHC class IIβ were studied in tissues by using qPCR. Im. vaccinated fish showed vaccine‐induced inflammation with formation of granulomas and increasing number of eosinophilic granulocyte‐like cells over time. On IHC sections, we observed diffuse intercellular staining of secretory IgM at the injection site at 2 dpi, while IgM + cells appeared in small numbers at 21 and 42 dpi. Skin/muscle samples from im. vaccinated fish demonstrated an increase in gene expression of IgM mRNA (secretory and membrane‐bound) at 21 and 42 dpi and small changes for other genes. Our results indicated that im. vaccination of lumpfish induced local IgM production at the vaccine injection site, with no apparent proliferation of IgM + cells. Eosinophilic granulocyte‐like cells appeared shortly after im. injection and increased in numbers as the inflammation progressed.