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dc.contributor.authorOnarheim, Ingrid Husøyeng
dc.contributor.authorSmedsrud, Lars Henrikeng
dc.contributor.authorIngvaldsen, Randieng
dc.contributor.authorNilsen, Frankeng
dc.description.abstractSea ice loss in the Arctic Ocean has up to now been strongest during summer. In contrast, the sea ice concentration north of Svalbard has experienced a larger decline during winter since 1979. The trend in winter ice area loss is close to 10% per decade, and concurrent with a 0.3°C per decade warming of the Atlantic Water entering the Arctic Ocean in this region. Simultaneously, there has been a 2°C per decade warming of winter mean surface air temperature north of Svalbard, which is 20- 45% higher than observations on the west coast. Generally, the ice edge north of Svalbard has retreated towards the northeast, along the Atlantic Water pathway. By making reasonable assumptions about the Atlantic Water volume and associated heat transport, we show that the extra oceanic heat brought into the region is likely to have caused the sea ice loss. The reduced sea ice cover leads to more oceanic heat transferred to the atmosphere, suggesting that part of the atmospheric warming is driven by larger open water area. In contrast to significant trends in sea ice concentration, Atlantic Water temperature and air temperature, there is no significant temporal trend in the local winds. Thus, winds have not caused the long-term warming or sea ice loss. However, the dominant winds transport sea ice from the Arctic Ocean into the region north of Svalbard, and the local wind has influence on the year-to-year variability of the ice concentration, which correlates with surface air temperatures, ocean temperatures, as well as the local wind.en_US
dc.publisherInternational Meteorological Institute, Stockholm Universityen_US
dc.relation.ispartof<a href="" target="blank"> Regional, seasonal, and predictable Arctic sea ice change</a>en_US
dc.rightsAttribution CC BYeng
dc.subjectSea iceeng
dc.subjectAtlantic watereng
dc.subjectHeat transporteng
dc.subjectAir-ice-sea interactionseng
dc.titleLoss of sea ice during winter north of Svalbarden_US
dc.typePeer reviewed
dc.typeJournal article
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2014 I. H. Onarheim et al.en_US
dc.source.journalTellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography

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