• Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies: Data collection, analysis and reporting results 

      Verani, Jennifer R.; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Broome, Claire V.; Cherian, Thomas; Cohen, Cheryl; Farrar, Jennifer L.; Feikin, Daniel R.; Groome, Michelle J.; Hajjeh, Rana A.; Johnson, Hope L.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Mulholland, Kim; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Patel, Manish M.; Rodrigues, Laura C.; Santosham, Mathuram; Scott, J. Anthony; Smith, Peter G.; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Victor, J. Chris; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Zaidi, Anita K.; Zell, Elizabeth R. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2017-06)
      The case-control methodology is frequently used to evaluate vaccine effectiveness post-licensure. The results of such studies provide important insight into the level of protection afforded by vaccines in a ‘real world’ ...
    • Case-control vaccine effectiveness studies: Preparation, design, and enrollment of cases and controls 

      Verani, Jennifer R.; Baqui, Abdullah H.; Broome, Claire V.; Cherian, Thomas; Cohen, Cheryl; Farrar, Jennifer L.; Feikin, Daniel R.; Groome, Michelle J.; Hajjeh, Rana A.; Johnson, Hope L.; Madhi, Shabir A.; Mulholland, Kim; O'Brien, Katherine L.; Parashar, Umesh D.; Patel, Manish M.; Rodrigues, Laura C.; Santosham, Mathuram; Scott, J. Anthony; Smith, Peter G.; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Tate, Jacqueline E.; Victor, J. Chris; Whitney, Cynthia G.; Zaidi, Anita K.; Zell, Elizabeth R. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2017-06)
      Case-control studies are commonly used to evaluate effectiveness of licensed vaccines after deployment in public health programs. Such studies can provide policy-relevant data on vaccine performance under ‘real world’ ...
    • Child survival and BCG vaccination: A community based prospective cohort study in Uganda 

      Nankabirwa, Victoria; Tumwine, James K.; Mugaba, Proscovia M.; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Sommerfelt, Halvor (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2015-02-22)
      Background Data on non-specific effects of BCG vaccination in well described, general population African cohorts is scanty. We report the effects of BCG vaccination on post-neonatal infant and post-infancy mortality in a ...
    • Cobalamin and folate status in 6 to 35 months old children presenting with acute diarrhea in Bhaktapur, Nepal 

      Ulak, Manjeswori; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Adhikari, Ramesh K.; Sharma, Pushpa R.; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Refsum, Helga; Strand, Tor A. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2014-03-03)
      Background: Cobalamin and folate are essential micronutrients and are important in DNA and RNA synthesis, cell proliferation, growth, hematopoiesis, and cognitive function. However, data on cobalamin and folate status are ...
    • Colonization factors among enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli isolates from children with moderate-to-severe diarrhea and from matched controls in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) 

      Vidal, Roberto M.; Muhsen, Khitam; Tennant, Sharon M.; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Sow, Samba O.; Sur, Dipika; Zaidi, Anita K.M.; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Saha, Debasish; Adegbola, Richard; Hossain, Mohammad Jahangir; Alonso, Pedro L.; Breiman, Robert F.; Bassat, Quique; Tamboura, Boubou; Sanogo, Doh; Onwuchekwa, Uma; Manna, Byomkesh; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Kanungo, Suman; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Qureshi, Shahida; Quadri, Farheen; Hossain, Anowar; Das, Sumon K.; Antonio, Martin; Mandomando, Inacio; Nhampossa, Tacilta; Acácio, Sozinho; Omore, Richard; Ochieng, John B.; Oundo, Joseph O.; Mintz, Eric D.; O'Reilly, Ciare E.; Berkeley, Lynette Y.; Livio, Sofie; Panchalingam, Sandra; Nasrin, Dilruba; Farag, Tamer H.; Wu, Yukun; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Robins-Browne, Roy M.; Del Canto, Felipe; Hazen, Tracy H.; Rasko, David A.; Kotloff, Karen L.; Nataro, James Paul; Levine, Myron M. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2019-01-04)
      Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (“ETEC”) were found to be one of the four most consistently important agents that cause moderate-to-severe diarrhea among children <5 years of age in a large case-control study, the Global ...
    • Community initiated kangaroo mother care and early child development in low birth weight infants in India - a randomized controlled trial 

      Taneja, Sunita; Sinha, Bireshwar; Upadhyay, Ravi Prakash; Mazumder, Sarmila; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Martines, Jose Carlos; Dalpath, Suresh Kumar; Gupta, Rakesh; Kariger, Patricia; Bahl, Rajiv; Bhandari, Nita; Dua, Tarun; Abbasi, Farah; Panwar, Vaishali; Nagpal, Sugandhi; Shekhar, Medha; Ghosh, Runa; Kaur, Jasmine; Dube, Brinda (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      Background: In a randomized controlled trial (RCT) with 8402 stable low birthweight (LBW) infants, majority being late preterm or term small for gestational age, community-initiated KMC (ciKMC) showed a significant improvement ...
    • Cost-Effectiveness of Peer Counselling for the Promotion of Exclusive Breastfeeding in Uganda 

      Chola, Lumbwe; Fadnes, Lars Thore; Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie S.; Nkonki, Lungiswa; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Tumwine, James K.; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Robberstad, Bjarne (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2015-11-30)
      Background: Community based breastfeeding promotion programmes have been shown to be effective in increasing breastfeeding prevalence. However, there is limited data on the cost-effectiveness of these programmes in sub-Saharan ...
    • Development of an enterotoxigenic Escherichia colivaccine based on the heat-stable toxin 

      Zegeye, Ephrem Debebe; Govasli Larsen, Morten Andreas; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Puntervoll, Pål (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2018)
      Infection with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of diarrhea-related illness and death among children under 5 years of age in low– and middle-income countries (LMIC). Recent studies have found ...
    • Diarrhoeal disease and subsequent risk of death in infants and children residing in low-income and middle-income countries: analysis of the GEMS case-control study and 12-month GEMS-1A follow-on study 

      Levine, Myron M.; Nasrin, Dilruba; Acácio, Sozinho; Bassat, Quique; Powell, Helen; Tennant, Sharon M.; Sow, Samba O.; Sur, Dipika; Zaidi, Anita K.M.; Faruque, Abu Syed Golam; Hossain, Jahangir; Alonso, Pedro L.; Breiman, Robert F.; O’Reilly, Ciara E.; Mintz, Eric D.; Omore, Richard; Ochieng, John B.; Oundo, Joseph O.; Tamboura, Boubou; Sanogo, Doh; Onwuchekwa, Uma; Manna, Byomkesh; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Kanungo, Suman; Ahmed, Shahnawaz; Qureshi, Shahida; Quadri, Farheen; Hossain, Anowar; Das, Sumon K.; Antonio, Martin; Saha, Debasish; Mandomando, Inacio; Blackwelder, William C.; Farag, Tamer H.; Wu, Yukun; Houpt, Eric R.; Verweiij, Jaco J; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Nataro, James Paul; Robins-Browne, Roy M.; Kotloff, Karen L. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2020)
      Background: The Global Enteric Multicenter Study (GEMS) was a 3-year case-control study that measured the burden, aetiology, and consequences of moderate-to-severe diarrhoea (MSD) in children aged 0–59 months. GEMS-1A, a ...
    • Early infant feeding practices in three African countries: the PROMISE-EBF trial promoting exclusive breastfeeding by peer counsellors 

      Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie S.; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Doherty, Tanya Mark; Diallo, Abdoulaye Hama; Nankunda, Jolly; Fadnes, Lars Thore; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Ramokolo, Vundli; Meda, Nicolas; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Jackson, Debra; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Tumwine, James K.; For the PROMISE-EBF study group (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2014-11-18)
      Background: Immediate and exclusive initiation of breastfeeding after delivery has been associated with better neonatal survival and child health and are recommended by the WHO. We report its impact on early infant feeding ...
    • Early versus late BCG vaccination in HIV-1-exposed infants in Uganda: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial 

      Nankabirwa, Victoria; Tumwine, James K; Namugga, Olive; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Ndeezi, Grace; Robberstad, Bjarne; Netea, Mihai G.; Sommerfelt, Halvor (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2017-03-31)
      Background: Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination may have nonspecific effects, i.e., effects on childhood morbidity and mortality that go beyond its effect on the risk of childhood tuberculosis (TB). Though the ...
    • Effect of implementation of Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness programme on treatment seeking practices for morbidities in infants: cluster randomised trial 

      Mazumder, Sarmila; Taneja, Sunita; Bahl, Rajiv; Mohan, Pavitra; Strand, Tor A.; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Kirkwood, Betty; Goyal, Nidhi; Van Den Hombergh, Henri; Martines, Jose Carlos; Bhandari, Nita (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2014-08-29)
      Objective: To determine the effect of implementation of the Integrated Management of Neonatal and Childhood Illness strategy on treatment seeking practices and on neonatal and infant morbidity. Design: Cluster randomised ...
    • Effect of withholding breastfeeding on the immune response to a live oral rotavirus vaccine in North Indian infants 

      Rongsen-Chandola, Temsunaro; Strand, Tor A.; Goyal, Nidhi; Flem, Elmira; Singh Rathore, Sudeep; Arya, Alok; Winje, Brita Askeland; Lazarus, Robin; Shanmugasundaram, Elango; Babji, Sudhir; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Vainio, Kirsti; Kang, Gagandeep; Bhandari, Nita (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2014-08-11)
      Interference from transplacental and breast milk antibodies may impede the performance of oral livevaccines. The effect of breastfeeding on the immunogenicity of Rotarix®, a two-dose oral monova-lent rotavirus vaccine, was ...
    • Effects of an exclusive breastfeeding intervention for six months on growth patterns of 4–5 year old children in Uganda: the cluster-randomised PROMISE EBF trial 

      Fadnes, Lars Thore; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie S.; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Birungi, Nancy; Lombard, Carl; Swanevelder, Sonja; Van den Broeck, Jan; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Tumwine, James K. (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2016-07-12)
      Background: Breastfeeding promotion is regarded as one of the most effective interventions to improve child health, and could reduce under-5-mortality by 8 % globally. Few studies have assessed the health outcomes beyond ...
    • Effects of complementary feeding on attained height among lower primary school-aged children in Eastern Uganda: A nested prospective cohort study 

      Malembaka, Espoir Bwenge; Tumwine, James K; Ndeezi, Grace; Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie S.; Tylleskär, Thorkild; Wamani, Henry; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Nankabirwa, Victoria (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2019-02-07)
      Background: Despite the fact that Uganda has been a signatory to the global strategy for Infant and Young Children Feeding practices (IYCF) for nearly a decade, the prevalence of stunting among children under five years ...
    • Experimental infection of healthy volunteers with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli wild-type strain TW10598 in a hospital ward 

      Skrede, Steinar; Steinsland, Hans; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Aase, Audun; Brandtzaeg, Per; Langeland, Nina; Cox, Rebecca Jane; Sævik, Marianne; Wallevik, Marita; Skutlaberg, Dag Harald; Tellevik, Marit Gjerde; Sack, David A.; Nataro, James P.; Guttormsen, Anne Berit (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2014-09-04)
      Background: Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) is an important cause of childhood diarrhea in resource-limited regions. It is also an important cause of diarrhea in travellers to these areas. To evaluate the protective ...
    • Experimental Infection of Human Volunteers with the Heat-Stable Enterotoxin-Producing Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli Strain TW11681 

      Sakkestad, Sunniva Todnem; Steinsland, Hans; Skrede, Steinar; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Lillebø, Kristine; Sævik, Marianne; Søyland, Hanne; Heien, Astrid Rykkje; Tellevik, Marit Gjerde; Barry, Eileen M.; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Hanevik, Kurt (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2019-06-22)
      Infection with enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) producing the heat-stable enterotoxin (ST) is one of the most important causes of childhood diarrhoea in low- and middle-income countries. Here, we undertook a controlled ...
    • Growth effects of exclusive breastfeeding promotion by peer counsellors in sub-Saharan Africa: the cluster-randomised PROMISE EBF trial 

      Engebretsen, Ingunn Marie S.; Jackson, Debra; Fadnes, Lars Thore; Nankabirwa, Victoria; Diallo, Abdoulaye Hama; Doherty, Tanya Mark; Lombard, Carl; Swanevelder, Sonja; Nankunda, Jolly; Ramokolo, Vundli; Sanders, David; Wamani, Henry; Meda, Nicolas; Tumwine, James K.; Ekström, Eva-Charlotte; Van de Perre, Philippe; Kankasa, Chipepo; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Tylleskär, Thorkild; on behalf of the PROMISE EBF-study group (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2014-06-21)
      Background: In this multi-country cluster-randomized behavioural intervention trial promoting exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in Africa, we compared growth of infants up to 6 months of age living in communities where peer ...
    • The high burden of infant deaths in rural Burkina Faso: a prospective community-based cohort study 

      Diallo, Abdoulaye Hama; Meda, Nicolas; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Traore, Germain S.; Cousens, Simon; Tylleskär, Thorkild (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2012-09-05)
      Background: Infant mortality rates (IMR) remain high in many sub-Saharan African countries, especially in rural settings where access to health services may be limited. Studies in such communities can provide relevant data ...
    • Impact of community-initiated Kangaroo Mother Care on survival of low birth weight infants: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial 

      Mazumder, Sarmila; Taneja, Sunita; Dalpath, Suresh Kumar; Gupta, Rakesh; Dube, Brinda; Sinha, Bireshwar; Bhatia, Kiran; Yoshida, Sachiyo; Norheim, Ole Frithjof; Bahl, Rajiv; Sommerfelt, Halvor; Bhandari, Nita; Martines, Jose Carlos (Peer reviewed; Journal article, 2017-06-07)
      Background: Around 70% neonatal deaths occur in low birth weight (LBW) babies. Globally, 15% of babies are born with LBW. Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) appears to be an effective way to reduce mortality and morbidity among ...