Modelling and simulation of thermo-hydro-mechanical processes in fractured porous media
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Understanding and predicting processes in fractured porous media is of wide interest, with applications such as geothermal energy extraction, water management and storage of CO$_2$ and energy. Characterisation and monitoring are inherently challenging, and can be supplemented by modelling and simulation studies. Strong interaction between structural features and physical processes calls for advanced models. The strong impact posed by fractures requires that they be explicitly represented in the model alongside the surrounding porous medium. Their high aspect ratio motivates a dimension reduction approach leading to a mixed-dimensional discrete fracture-matrix model. In this thesis, we consider the physical processes of fluid and heat flow and deformation of both fractures and the surrounding medium, including propagation of the former. The model and its open-source implementation is tested in the papers constituting Part II, including benchmark studies for the flow problem and convergence studies for various parts of the model. The papers also contain simulations investigating various process-structure interaction mechanisms. Studies of fracture deformation in different regimes of thermal and hydraulic driving forces and with perturbations of various rock properties highlight the strongly coupled nature of the problem. Applications include stimulation of geothermal reservoirs and fracture propagation caused by forced and natural convection. The results demonstrate physics-based modelling's potential of advancing our understanding of complicated coupled processes.
Has partsPaper A: Finite-Volume Discretisations for Flow in Fractured Porous Media. Ivar Stefansson, Inga Berre, Eirik Keilegavlen. Transport in Porous Media, 2018 Vol. 124, pp. 439-462. Full text not available in BORA due to publisher restrictions. The article is available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s11242-018-1077-3
Paper B: Benchmarks for single-phase flow in fractured porous media. Bernd Flemisch, Inga Berre, Wietse Boon, Alessio Fumagalli, Nicolas Schwenck, Anna Scotti, Ivar Stefansson, Alexandru Tatomir. Advances in Water Resources, 2018, Vol. 111, pp. 239-258. The article is available in the main thesis. The article is also available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2017.10.036
Paper C: Verification benchmarks for single-phase flow in threedimensional fractured porous media. Bernd Flemisch, Inga Berre, Wietse Boon, Alessio Fumagalli,Dennis Gläser, Eirik Keilegavlen, Anna Scotti, Ivar Stefansson, Alexandru Tatomir, Konstantin Brenner, Samuel Burbulla, Philippe Devloo, Omar Duran, Marco Favino, Julian Hennicker, I-Hsien Lee, Konstantin Lipnikov, Roland Masson, Klaus Mosthaf, Maria Giuseppina Chiara Nestola, Chuen-Fa Ni, K. Nikitin, Philipp Schaedle, Daniil Svyatskiy, Ruslan Yanbarisov, Patrick Zulian. Advances in Water Resources, 2021, Vol. 147, pp. 239-258. The article is available in the main thesis. The article is also available at: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.advwatres.2020.103759
Paper D: PorePy: an open-source software for simulation of multiphysics processes in fractured porous media. Eirik Keilegavlen, Runar L. Berge, Alessio Fumagalli, Michele Starnoni, Ivar Stefansson, Jhabriel Varela, Inga Berre. Computational Geosciences, 2020, pp. 1–23. The article is available in the main thesis. The article is also available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10596-020-10002-5
Paper E: A fully coupled numerical model of thermo-hydro-mechanical processes and fracture contact mechanics in porous media. Ivar Stefansson, Inga Berre, Eirik Keilegavlen. A preprint is available in the main thesis.
Paper F: Fault slip in hydraulic stimulation of geothermal reservoirs: Governing mechanisms and process-structure interaction. Inga Berre, Ivar Stefansson, Eirik Keilegavlen. The Leading Edge, 2020, Vol. 39, pp. 893–900. Full text not available in BORA due to publisher restrictions. The article is available at: https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1190/tle39120893.1
Paper G: Numerical modelling of convection-driven cooling, deformation and fracturing of thermo-poroelastic media. Ivar Stefansson, Eirik Keilegavlen, Sæunn Halldórsdóttir, Inga Berre. A preprint is available in the main thesis.
Paper H: Hydro-mechanical simulation and analysis of induced seismicity for a hydraulic stimulation test at the Reykjanes geothermal field, Iceland. Eirik Keilegavlen, Laure Duboeuf, Anna Maria Dichiarante, Sæunn Halldórsdóttir, Ivar Stefansson, Marcel Naumann, Egill Árni Guðnason, Kristján Ágústsson, Guðjón Helgi Eggertsson, Volker Oye, Inga Berre. The mansucript is available in the main thesis.