Epidemiology of Sjögrens syndrome-from an oral perspective
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Oral symptoms are among the most distressing manifestations for patients with Sjögren’s syndrome (SS). The feeling of dry mouth is unpleasant, and hyposalivation may contribute to difficulty in speaking, chewing and swallowing and reduced quality of life. Reduced salivary flow increases the risk for dental caries and problems with prosthetic replacement. It seems that SS is not as frequently occurring as previously anticipated. Population-based prevalence studies on primary SS in Europe, conducted on large background populations and in accordance with the AECG criteria, reported of a prevalence of 1–9 cases per 10,000 people. This gives a combined prevalence of nearly 39/100,000 (~0.04 %). The cause of Sjögren’s syndrome is even now not fully understood, and the treatment of oral symptoms is still mostly palliative. Hopefully, useful information will appear from the new methods that are now available for genome wide association studies, epigenetics, DNA methylation studies, and proteomics. Similarly, this is anticipated for the immunological side of the story. The interferon signature, the interferon γ/interferon α mRNA ratio, and CXCL13 are among the proposed biomarkers of active disease. In this review, we provide an update on oral aspects of Sjögren’s syndrome with emphasis on the latest publications on these topics.