Psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the short form of the Problem Areas in Diabetes scale (PAID-5): A validation study
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Objectives To assess the psychometric properties of the short form of The Problem Areas in Diabetes scale (PAID-5) in Norwegian adult patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. Design Cross-sectional survey design. Methods Participants (n=143) were included from three Western-Norway endocrinology outpatient clinics. Demographic and clinical data were collected in addition to questionnaires concerning diabetes-related distress, fear of hypoglycaemia, symptoms of depression, emotional well-being and perception of general health. Psychometric evaluation of the PAID-5 included confirming its postulated one-factor structure using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and assessing convergent validity, discriminant validity, internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The retest questionnaire was sent out 35±15 days after the initial assessment to those who agreed (n=117). Results The CFA for the PAID-5 scale showed excellent one-factor structure, and there was high internal consistency (α=0.89) and good test-retest reliability (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient, ICC=0.81). The PAID-5 correlated positively with fear of hypoglycaemia (r=0.598) and depression (r=0.380) and negatively with emotional well-being (r=−0.363) and perception of general health (r=−0.420), thus satisfying convergent validity. Patients who had experienced episodes of serious hypoglycaemia in the past 6 months had a significantly higher PAID-5 mean score (7.5, SD=4.95) than those who had not had these episodes (5.0, SD=4.2 (p=0.043)). Conclusion The Norwegian PAID-5 was shown to be a reliable and valid short questionnaire for assessing diabetes-related distress among people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. However, its ability to discriminate between groups needs to be tested further in larger samples. The PAID-5 scale can be a particularly valuable screening instrument in outpatient clinics, as its brevity makes it easy to use as a tool in patient-provider encounters. This short questionnaire is useful in the national diabetes registry or population cohort studies as it enables increased knowledge regarding the prevalence of diabetes-related distress.