IP-10 dried blood spots assay monitoring treatment efficacy in extrapulmonary tuberculosis in a low-resource setting
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Treatment efficacy is difficult to evaluate in extrapulmonary tuberculosis (EPTB) patients. Interferon-γ inducible protein (IP-)10 has been suggested as a biomarker for response to treatment. We have investigated if IP-10 from dried plasma spots (DPS) or dried blood spots (DBS) can be used in treatment monitoring of EPTB patients in a low-resource setting of Zanzibar. IP-10 levels in plasma, DPS and DBS samples collected before, during (2 months) and after TB treatment of 36 EPTB patients (6 culture and/or Xpert MTB/RIF positive and 30 clinically diagnosed) and 8 pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) patients, were quantified by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. There was a high positive correlation between IP-10 measured in plasma and DPS and DBS, respectively. We found a significant decline in IP-10 levels from baseline to end of treatment in plasma, DPS and DBS, both in EPTB and PTB patients. The declines were observed already after 2 months in HIV negative patients. In conclusion, the DPS/DBS IP-10 assay allows for easy and manageable monitoring in low-resource settings and our findings suggest that IP-10 may serve as a biomarker for treatment efficacy in EPTB patients, albeit further studies in cohorts of patients with treatment failure and relapse are needed.