Mathematics and Medicine: How mathematics, modelling and simulations can lead to better diagnosis and treatments
Chapter, Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Starting with the discovery of X-rays by Röntgen in 1895, the progress in medical imaging has been extraordinary and immensely beneficial to diagnosis and therapy. Parallel to the increase of imaging accuracy, there is the quest of moving from qualitative to quantitative analysis and patient-tailored therapy. Mathematics, modelling and simulations are increasing their importance as tools in this quest. In this paper we give an overview of relations between mathematical modelling and imaging and focus particularly on the estimation of perfusion in the brain. In the forward model, the brain is treated as a porous medium and a two compartment model (arterial/venous) is used. Motivated by the similarity with techniques in reservoir modelling, we propose an ensemble Kalman filter to perform the parameter estimation and apply the method to a simple example as an illustrative example.