Severe acute malnutrition and mortality in children in the community: Comparison of indicators in a multi-country pooled analysis
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Objectives: This study aims to describe the mortality risk of children in the community who had severe acute malnutrition (SAM) defined by either a mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) <115mm, a low weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ) <-3 or both criteria. Methods: We pooled individual-level data from children aged 6–59 months enrolled in 3 community-based studies in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Senegal and Nepal. We estimate the mortality hazard using Cox proportional hazard models in groups defined by either anthropometric indicator. Results: In total, we had 49,001 time points provided by 15,060 children available for analysis, summing to a total of 143,512 person-months. We found an increasing death rate with a deteriorating nutritional status for all anthropometrical indicators. Children identified as SAM only by a low MUAC (<115mm) and those identified only by a low WHZ (Z-score <-3) had a similar mortality hazard which was about 4 times higher than those without an anthropometric deficit. Having both a low MUAC and a low WHZ was associated with an 8 times higher hazard of dying compared to children within the normal range. The 2 indicators identified a different set of children; the proportion of children identified by both indicators independently ranged from 7% in the DRC cohort, to 35% and 37% in the Senegal and the Nepal cohort respectively. Conclusion: In the light of an increasing popularity of using MUAC as the sole indicator to identify SAM children, we show that children who have a low WHZ, but a MUAC above the cut-off would be omitted from diagnosis and treatment despite having a similar risk of death.