Directed Network of Substorms Using SuperMAG Ground‐Based Magnetometer Data
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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We quantify the spatiotemporal evolution of the substorm ionospheric current system utilizing the SuperMAG 100+ magnetometers. We construct dynamical directed networks from this data for the first time. If the canonical cross‐correlation between vector magnetic field perturbations observed at two magnetometer stations exceeds a threshold, they form a network connection. The time lag at which canonical cross‐correlation is maximal determines the direction of propagation or expansion of the structure captured by the network connection. If spatial correlation reflects ionospheric current patterns, network properties can test different models for the evolving substorm current system. We select 86 isolated substorms based on nightside ground station coverage. We find, and obtain the timings for, a consistent picture in which the classic substorm current wedge forms. A current system is seen premidnight following the substorm current wedge westward expansion. Later, there is a weaker signal of eastward expansion. Finally, there is evidence of substorm‐enhanced convection.