Land Reform in Post- Apartheid South Africa. A Case Study of challenges and opportunities for Land Reform Beneficiaries in the Western and Northern Cape Provinces
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The differences caused by the Apartheid system have set its mark on the South African society and are still very evident through the separation of society according to colour, the uneven distribution of resources, but also through the extensive lack of trust in society in general. During Apartheid the white areas developed and had much of the resources, knowledge, corporations and property. The rural areas and the Homelands were poor and to a large degree dependent on employment from the white landowners and companies. Hence, one part of the population has well-established markets and organisations, while the former Homelands and rural areas are in need of assistance through grants, financing, education, training and so on. In 1994 the newly elected ANC government gave promise of 30 percent land redistributed back to the dispossessed in 5 years through an extensive Land and Agrarian Land Reform Programme. In 2005, 3 percent of the land had been redistributed (Gran 2006: 192). It is against this context of persistent poverty among the previously oppressed in the rural areas and a clear failure of the land reform to perform as supposed at the outset, that this thesis sets out to explore communal problem-solving through the theories of nodal governance and social capital.