• Characteristics of the Flank Magnetopause: MMS Results 

      Haaland, Stein; Paschmann, Götz; Oieroset, M; Phan, Tai D.; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Fuselier, Stephen; COnstantinescu, Vlad; Eriksson, Stefan; Trattner, Karlheinz J.; Fadanelli, Sid; Tenfjord, Paul; Lavraud, Benoit; Norgren, Astrid Elisabet Cecilia; Eastwood, Jonathan P.; Hietala, Heli; Burch, J (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      We have used a large number of magnetopause crossings by the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission to investigate macroscopic properties of this current sheet, with emphasis on the flanks of the magnetopause. Macroscopic ...
    • Cluster and MMS simultaneous observations of magnetosheath high speed jets and their impact on the magnetopause 

      Escoubet, C. P.; Hwang, KJ; Toledo-Redondo, Sergio; Turc, Lucile; Haaland, Stein; Aunai, N; Dargent, Jeremy; Eastwood, Jonathan P.; Fear, Robert C.; Fu, H.; Genestreti, Kevin; Graham, Daniel B.; Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.; Lapenta, G.; Lavraud, Benoit; Norgren, Cecilia; Sibeck, David G.; Varsani, Ali; Berchem, J.; Dimmock, A (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020-01-31)
      When the supersonic solar wind encounters the Earth's magnetosphere a shock, called bow shock, is formed and the plasma is decelerated and thermalized in the magnetosheath downstream from the shock. Sometimes, however, due ...
    • Comparison of Quality Measures for Walén Relation 

      Paschmann, G; Sonnerup, B. U. Ö.; Haaland, Stein; Phan, T.D.; Denton, Richard E (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      The standard method for identifying magnetohydrodynamic rotational discontinuities in spacecraft data has been to examine how well the Walén relation is satisfied. In this paper, we apply two different versions of the Walén ...
    • Convection in the Magnetosphere-Ionosphere System: A Multimission Survey of Its Response to IMF By Reversals 

      Case, Nathan A; Grocott, Adrian; Fear, Robert C.; Haaland, Stein; Lane, J. H. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      Past studies have demonstrated that the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By component introduces asymmetries in the magnetosphere‐ionosphere (M‐I) system, though the exact timings involved are still unclear with two ...
    • Estimating the fate of oxygen ion outflow from the high-altitude cusp 

      Krcelic, Patrik; Haaland, Stein; Maes, Lukas; Slapak, Rikard; Schillings, Audrey (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      We have investigated the oxygen escape-to-capture ratio from the high-altitude cusp regions for various geomagnetic activity levels by combining EDI and CODIF measurements from the Cluster spacecraft. Using a magnetic field ...
    • High‐density magnetospheric He+ at the dayside magnetopause and its effect on magnetic reconnection 

      Fuselier, Stephen A.; Haaland, Stein; Tenfjord, Paul; Paschmann, G; Toledo-Redondo, S; Malaspina, D; Kim, M.J.; Trattner, K.J.; Petrinec, S. M.; Giles, B. L.; Goldstein, J; Burch, J. L.; Strangeway, R. J. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2021)
      Observations from the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission are used to quantify the maximum effect of magnetospheric H+ and He+ on dayside magnetopause reconnection. A data base of current-sheet crossings from the first ...
    • MMS Observations of Multiscale Hall Physics in the Magnetotail 

      Alm, Love; André, Mats; Graham, Daniel B.; Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.; Vaivads, Andris; Chappell, Charles Richard; Dargent, Jérémy; Fuselier, Stephen A.; Haaland, Stein; Lavraud, Benoit; Li, Wenya; Tenfjord, Paul; Toledo-Redondo, Sergio; Vines, Sarah K. (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      We present Magnetospheric Multiscale mission (MMS) observations of Hall physics in the magnetotail, which compared to dayside Hall physics is a relatively unexplored topic. The plasma consists of electrons, moderately cold ...
    • Observations of Asymmetric Lobe Convection for Weak and Strong Tail Activity 

      Ohma, Anders; Østgaard, Nikolai; Reistad, Jone Peter; Tenfjord, Paul; Laundal, Karl Magnus; Moretto, Therese; Haaland, Stein; Krcelic, Patrik; Milan, Stephen Eric (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2019)
      In this study we use high‐quality convection data from the Electron Drift Instrument on board Cluster to investigate how near‐Earth tail activity affects the average convection pattern in the magnetotail lobes when the ...
    • The Polar Wind Modulated by the Spatial Inhomogeneity of the Strength of the Earth's Magnetic Field 

      Li, Kun; Förster, Matthias; Rong, Zhaojin; Haaland, Stein; Kronberg, E.; Cui, Jun; Chai, Lihui; Wei, Yong (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      When the geomagnetic field is weak, the small mirror force allows precipitating charged particles to deposit energy in the ionosphere. This leads to an increase in ionospheric outflow from the Earth's polar cap region, but ...
    • Seasonal and hemispheric asymmetries of F‐region polar cap plasma density: Swarm and CHAMP observations 

      Hatch, Spencer Mark; Haaland, Stein; Laundal, Karl Magnus; Moretto, Therese; Yau, Andrew; Bjoland, Lindis Merete; Reistad, Jone Peter; Ohma, Anders; Oksavik, Kjellmar (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      One of the primary mechanisms of loss of Earth's atmosphere is the persistent “cold” ( urn:x-wiley:jgra:media:jgra56068:jgra56068-math-0001 20 eV) ion outflow that has been observed in the magnetospheric lobes over large ...
    • Suprathermal Fe in the Earth's Plasma Environment: Cluster RAPID Observations 

      Haaland, Stein; Daly, Patrick W.; Vilenius, Esa; Krcelic, Patrik; Dandouras, Iannis (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)
      Baryonic matter in geospace is almost exclusively in a plasma state, with protons (H +) and to some extent ionized helium (He) and oxygen (O) being the dominant ion species. But also other heavier ion species and even ...