Adipose-derived and bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells: a donor-matched comparison
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Background Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) have been introduced as an alternative to bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) for cell-based therapy. However, different studies comparing ASCs and BMSCs have shown conflicting results. In fact, harvesting ASCs and BMSCs from different individuals might influence the results, making comparison difficult. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize donor-matched ASCs and BMSCs in order to investigate proliferation, differentiation potential and possible effects of donor variation on these mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Methods Human bone marrow and adipose tissue samples were obtained from nine donors aged 8–14. ASCs and BMSCs were isolated and characterized based on expression of surface markers using flow cytometry. The proliferation up to 21 days was investigated. Multi-lineage differentiation was induced using osteogenic, chondrogenic and adipogenic differentiation media. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was monitored and collagen type I formation was evaluated by immunofluorescence staining. In vitro multi-potency was studied using tissue-specific stains and lineage-specific gene expression. In addition, the osteogenic lineage was evaluated at protein level. Results Isolated ASCs and BMSCs from all donors demonstrated morphologic and immunophenotypic characteristics of MSCs, with expression of MSCs markers and negative expression of hematopoietic markers. Unlike BMSCs, ASCs showed high expression of CD49d and low expression of Stro-1. In general, ASCs showed significantly higher proliferation and adipogenic capacity with more lipid vesicle formation and expression of the adipogenesis-related genes than BMSCs. In contrast, BMSCs showed significantly higher osteogenic and chondrogenic capacity compared to ASCs. BMSCs had earlier and higher ALP activity, calcium deposition, and expression of the osteogenesis- and chondrogenesis-related genes and the osteogenesis-related protein osteopontin. Proliferation and differentiation capacity of ASCs and BMSCs varied significantly among the donors. Conclusions ASCs and BMSCs showed tissue-specific differentiation abilities, but with significant variation between donors. The similarities and differences in the properties of ASCs and BMSCs should be taken into consideration when planning stem cell-based therapy.