Incidence of infective endocarditis caused by viridans group streptococci in Sweden – effect of cessation of antibiotic prophylaxis in dentistry for risk individuals
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonJournal of Oral Microbiology. 2020, 12 (1), 1768342. 10.1080/20002297.2020.1768342
Introduction In October 2012, the Swedish Medical Products Agency published new recommendations for the cessation of prophylactic antibiotics in dentistry for the prevention of infective endocarditis (IE). Previously, 2 g of amoxicillin per os would be administered 1 h before invasive dental procedures to patients with valve prosthesis, complicated heart valve disease, and to those with previous endocarditis. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the total incidence of IE caused by oral viridans group streptococci (VGS) or IE caused by staphylococci, increased in Sweden after the introduction of the new recommendations. Methods The incidence of IE in Sweden before and after October 2012 was calculated and compared using an interrupted time series analysis. Separate analyses were conducted for the total incidence of IE, and IE caused by VGS or Staphylococcus aureus. Cases of IE were identified using the Swedish national registry of IE, which has existed since 1995 and contains data from all Swedish hospital clinics specialising in infectious disease. All cases with hospital admission date from the 1st of Jan 2008, to the 31st of Dec 2017 were included. The incidence calculations were corrected for annual changes in population size using data from the Swedish government agency Statistics Sweden. Results The results show no statistically significant increase in the slope of the trend line of the total incidence of IE, IE caused by VGS or S. aureus in the Swedish general population after October 2012, compared to before. Conclusion The results suggest that the recommended cessation of prophylactic antibiotics for the prevention of IE in dentistry has not led to an increased incidence of IE caused by oral streptococci among the Swedish population.