Oral impacts on daily performances and its socio-demographic and clinical distribution: a cross-sectional study of adolescents living in Maasai population areas, Tanzania
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionHealth and Quality of Life Outcomes. 2020, 18, 181. 10.1186/s12955-020-01444-7
Background In a global perspective, oral health among adolescents has improved during recent decades. However, oral problems still persist especially in many underprivileged societies. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of oral impacts in adolescents and to identify important clinical- and socio-demographic covariates. In addition, this study compares Maasai and non-Maasai adolescents regarding any association of socio-demographic and clinical covariates with oral impacts on daily performances. Methods A total of 989 adolescents were invited from 23 randomly selected public primary schools in Monduli and Longido districts, Tanzania. All adolescents attending 6th grade classes were invited to participate. A total of 930 accepted and of those 24 were excluded, leaving 906 (91.6%) participants for the study. Results A total of 143/906 (15.8%) had at-least one oral impact on daily performances (OIDP > 0), 14.6% among the Maasai and 20.5% among the non-Maasai ethnic group. Cluster adjusted logistic regression revealed that: adolescents from Longido district (OR = 0.4) and adolescents with good oral hygiene (OR = 0.7) were less likely to report OIDP> 0 and; non Maasai (OR = 1.6), those with least poor parents (OR = 2.0), DMFT> 0 (OR = 3.1) and those with positive answers to questions regarding TMD pain, 2Q/TMD > 0 (OR = 3.9) were more likely to report OIDP> 0. Stratified logistic regression by ethnicity revealed that, among the non-Maasais, older adolescents (OR = 3.7, 95% CI 1.1–12.8), those with DMFT> 0 (OR = 3.3 (1.2–9.0) and 2Q/TMD > 0 (OR = 9.0, 95% CI 3.3–25.0) were more likely to report at least one OIDP. The corresponding figures among the Maasais were (OR = 0.9, 95% CI 0.5–1.7), (OR = 2.8, 95% CI 1.4–5.5) and (OR = 3.0, 95% CI 1.7–5.2), respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of oral impacts was moderate but higher among the non-Maasai- than Maasai-adolescents attending rural primary schools in the Maasai population areas of Tanzania. This study also confirmed socioeconomic and oral clinical disparities in OIDP, some of which differed according to ethnicity. Caries experience and self-reported TMD pain associated more strongly with OIDP among the non-Maasais than among the Maasais. These results are important for public oral health decision makers who plan strategies for optimal primary oral health care and quality of life among adolescents belonging to minority groups in Tanzania.