Caries experience and oral health related quality of life in a cohort of Ugandan HIV-1 exposed uninfected children compared with a matched cohort of HIV unexposed uninfected children
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionBMC Public Health. 2020, 20, 423 10.1186/s12889-020-08564-1
Background Very few studies consider the oral health status and quality of life in HIV-1 exposed uninfected (HEU) children. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of caries in primary teeth and its oral health related quality of life impacts in HEU children compared to HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children, whilst adjusting for confounding covariates. Methods This study uses data from the Ugandan site of the ANRS 121741 PROMISE- PEP trial (ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00640263) conducted in 2009–2013 that recruited mothers with HIV-1 and their uninfected children. Of 244 HEU-children-caretaker pairs available at the end of the one-year trial, 166 were re-enrolled in the ANRS 12341 PROMISE-PEP M&S study at 5–7 years and 164 were included in this study. These were age and sex-matched with 181 HUU children-caretaker comparators. Caries experience was recorded using World Health Organization’s Decayed, Missed and Filled teeth (dmft/DMFT) indices. The Early Childhood Oral health Impact Scale (ECOHIS) was used for assessment of oral health related quality of life. Mixed effects logistic regression was conducted with dmft and ECOHIS scores as outcomes and HIV-1 exposure status as the main exposure. Results Forty-eight percent of HEU children and 60% of HUU had dmft> 0. Corresponding figures for ECOHIS> 0 were 12% of HEU and 22% of HUU. The crude analysis showed differences related to HIV-1 exposure in caries experience and oral health related quality of life. Mixed effect logistic regression analyses were not significant when adjusted for use of dental care and toothache. If caregivers’ DMFT> 0, the adjusted odds ratio for caries experience (dmft> 0) was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.0–2.8) while if dmft> 0 the adjusted odds ratio for quality of life impacts (ECOHIS> 0) was 4.6 (95% CI: 2.0–10.6). Conclusion The prevalence of untreated caries in primary teeth and quality of life impacts was high in this study population. HIV-1 exposed uninfected children were not more likely than HUU children to experience dental caries or have impaired oral health related quality of life. Given the global expansion of the HEU child population, the present findings indicating no adverse effect of pre- and post-natal HIV-1 exposure on caries in deciduous teeth are reassuring.