Characterization of Wind-Sea- and Swell-Induced Wave Energy along the Norwegian Coast
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionAtmosphere. 2020, 11 (2), 166 10.3390/atmos11020166
The necessity to reduce CO2 emissions in combination with the rising energy demand worldwide makes the extensive use of renewable energy sources increasingly important. To that end, countries with long coastlines, such as Norway, can exploit ocean wave energy to produce large amounts of power. In order to facilitate these efforts as well as to provide quantitative data on the wave energy potential of a specific area, it is essential to analyze the weather and climatic conditions detecting any variabilities. The complex physical processes and the atmosphere-wave synergetic effects make the investigation of temporal variability of wave energy a challenging issue. This work aims to shed new light on potential wave energy mapping, presenting a spatio-temporal assessment of swell- and wind-sea-induced energy flux in the Nordic Seas with a focus on the Norwegian coastline using the NORA10 hindcast for the period 1958–2017 (59 years). The results indicate high spatial and seasonal variability of the wave energy flux along the coast. The maximum wave energy flux is observed during winter, while the minimum is observed during summer. The highest coastal wave energy flux is observed in the Norwegian Sea. The majority of areas with dominant swell conditions (i.e., in the Norwegian Sea) are characterized by the highest coastal wave energy flux. The maximum values of wave energy flux in the North Sea are denoted in its northern parts in the intersection with the Norwegian Sea. In contrast to the Norwegian Sea, areas located in the North Sea and the Barents Sea show that wind sea is contributing more than swell to the total wave energy flux.