Development of a systematic method for assessing HIV-indicator data reporting in Kenya
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Background: In a bid to eradicate the HIV epidemic, Low-and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) have taken strides in strengthening monitoring and evaluation through building capacity in data collection and data use. As such, the District Health Information System Software version 2 (DHIS2) has been adopted by numerous countries in LMICs for purposes of monitoring and evaluating the progress made towards eradication of the epidemic. Nonetheless, despite a longstanding requirement to report HIV-indicator data from facilities into DHIS2 for many LMICs, few rigorous evaluations exist to evaluate performance of facilities at meeting completeness and timeliness reporting requirements for HIV-indicator data to DHIS2. Hence, the aim of this dissertation was to develop and apply a systematic method that incorporates the use of both quantitative and qualitative research approaches in assessing facility reporting performance over time (2011 to 2018), using completeness and timeliness facility reporting requirements to DHIS2. Methods: This dissertation was anchored on Design Science Research (DSR) methodology. A DSR process model proposed by Vaishnavi et al. was employed, and consisted of five steps (awareness of problem, suggestion, development, evaluation, and conclusion). The development step is key in design and development of the artifact and consisted of four sub-cycles in this dissertation with each applying different approaches to obtain the various expected outcomes. Results: A systematic method of assessing facility reporting performance resulted from the combination of four sub-cycles within the development step. This entailed systematic process of data cleaning (sub-cycle 1); application of the resultant clean dataset in evaluation of facility reporting performance (sub-cycle 2); conducting qualitative case study based on facility reporting performance results in sub-cycle 2 (sub-cycle 3); and development of facility reporting performance dashboard comprising visualizations using data and results in sub-cycle 1 and 2 (sub-cycle 4). Results in each of the sub-cycles also varied based on expected outcomes. Conclusions: The developed systematic method artifact in this dissertation can be of benefit to HIV monitoring and evaluation teams in ministries of health in LMICs as well as other relevant stakeholders.
Består avPaper I: Gesicho, Milka Bochere, Were, M. C., & Babic, A. (2020). Data cleaning process for HIV-indicator data extracted from DHIS2 national reporting system: a case study of Kenya. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 20(1), 293. The article is available at: https://hdl.handle.net/11250/2757059
Paper II: Gesicho, M. B., Were, M. C., & Babic, A. (2021). Evaluating performance of health care facilities at meeting HIV-indicator reporting requirements in Kenya: an application of K-means clustering algorithm. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making, 21(1), 6. The article is available at: https://hdl.handle.net/11250/2763611
Paper III: Gesicho, Milka B., Babic, A., & Were, M. C. (2020). K-means Clustering in Monitoring Facility Reporting of HIV Indicator data: Case of Kenya. In Studies in Health Technology and Informatics Vol. 272, pp. 143–146. The article is available at: https://hdl.handle.net/11250/2738820
Paper IV: Gesicho, M., Babic, A., & Were, M. (2021). A Retrospective Observational Study of Health Facility Ownership Type and Performance on HIV Indicator Data Reporting in Kenya. In IFMBE Proceedings Vol. 80, pp. 38–44. The article is not available in BORA due to publisher restrictions. The published version is available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-64610-3_5
Paper V: Gesicho, M. B., & Babic, A. (2021). Identifying barriers and facilitators in HIVindicator reporting for different health facility performances: A qualitative case study. PLOS ONE, 16(2), e0247525. The article is available at: https://hdl.handle.net/11250/2766051
Paper VI: Gesicho, M. B., & Babic, A. (2021). Facility Performance Dashboard Instance of HIV-Indicator reporting: Case example of Kenya. The article is not available in BORA.