Creencias Sobre el Aprendizaje de Idiomas: Un estudio exploratorio sobre las creencias de los estudiantes de secundaria inferior en Noruega en relación con el aprendizaje de español como tercera lengua.
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- Master theses 
In the field of foreign and third language learning, beliefs, as one of the determining factors in the learning of lower secondary students in Norway, remain relatively unexplored. This study investigates the beliefs about Spanish learning of students from a lower secondary school in Norway, using the BALLI questionnaire (beliefs about language learning inventory) developed by Horwitz (1988). In addition to describing the beliefs of the students, the study explores the differences between the beliefs of the students of the 3 grades that make up the lower secondary school: 8th, 9th and 10th. A total of 87 students participated in this study in February 2021. Data was analyzed using 6-component factor analysis and Cronbach's alpha. The study consisted of 5 analysis factors related to the BALLI inventory. Factor 1: Difficulty learning the language. Factor 2: Ability to learn foreign languages. Factor 3: Nature of language learning. Factor 4: Communication and learning strategies. Factor 5: Motivation and expectations. In addition, as a contribution to the study, the researcher created and included one more factor to explore the beliefs of the students who, at the time of the application of the project, were learning Spanish through English, the second language of the students. Factor 6: Beliefs about learning Spanish through L2. Study participants appear to have a variety of beliefs. Similar responses were found in several factors, but also significant differences between the responses of the students of the 3 courses. This study contributes to the increasingly necessary exploration and understanding of the role of beliefs in language learning in secondary school students. Conducting additional studies in other groups of students, in other institutions in Norway, could allow a comparison 6 of results to help produce a clearer picture of the beliefs and expectations about language learning of students in secondary schools in the country.