Caries experience by socio-behavioural characteristics in HIV-1-infected and uninfected Ugandan mothers – a multilevel analysis
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionActa Odontologica Scandinavica, 2021. 10.1080/00016357.2021.1942544
Objectives To assess caries experience in Ugandan mothers according to HIV status, socio-behavioural-characteristics, gingival bleeding status and to examine whether HIV status impacts the association of socio-behavioural characteristics with caries experience. Third, using multilevel analysis, this study assessed to what extent surface-specific caries experience varied between and within individuals. Materials and methods Caries experience was recorded using the World Health Organization’s Decayed, Missed and Filled Teeth/Surfaces indices from a cohort of 164 HIV-1-infected Ugandan mothers and a cross sectional comparison group of 181 negative controls. Mixed-effects logistic regression was conducted with surface-specific caries experience as the outcome variable. Results The prevalence of caries in HIV-1-infected and uninfected mothers was 81% and 71%, respectively. Significant associations occurred between caries experience at surface level and women’s increasing age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.8, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.1–2.8) and presence of gingival bleeding (OR = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.2–3.2). Intra-class correlation (ICC) coefficient amounted to 0.54 (95% CI 0.48‒0.59). Conclusions Caries prevalence was higher in HIV-1 infected than in uninfected mothers and increased with age and gingival bleeding. ICC indicated that 54% of the variance was attributable to variation between individuals. Socio-demographic differences in dental caries did not vary by HIV-1 status.