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dc.contributor.authorPisa, Lennard W.
dc.contributor.authorGoulson, Dave
dc.contributor.authorYang, En-Cheng
dc.contributor.authorGibbons, David W.
dc.contributor.authorSanchez-Bayo, Francisco
dc.contributor.authorMitchell, Edward
dc.contributor.authorAebi, Alexandre
dc.contributor.authorvan der Sluijs, Jeroen P
dc.contributor.authorMacQuarrie, Chris J.K.
dc.contributor.authorGiorio, Chiara
dc.contributor.authorLong, Elizabeth Yim
dc.contributor.authorMcField, Melanie D.
dc.contributor.authorBijleveld van Lexmond, Maarten
dc.contributor.authorBonmatin, Jean-Marc
dc.description.abstractNew information on the lethal and sublethal effects of neonicotinoids and fipronil on organisms is presented in this review, complementing the previous Worldwide Integrated Assessment (WIA) in 2015. The high toxicity of these systemic insecticides to invertebrates has been confirmed and expanded to include more species and compounds. Most of the recent research has focused on bees and the sublethal and ecological impacts these insecticides have on pollinators. Toxic effects on other invertebrate taxa also covered predatory and parasitoid natural enemies and aquatic arthropods. Little new information has been gathered on soil organisms. The impact on marine and coastal ecosystems is still largely uncharted. The chronic lethality of neonicotinoids to insects and crustaceans, and the strengthened evidence that these chemicals also impair the immune system and reproduction, highlights the dangers of this particular insecticidal class (neonicotinoids and fipronil), with the potential to greatly decrease populations of arthropods in both terrestrial and aquatic environments. Sublethal effects on fish, reptiles, frogs, birds, and mammals are also reported, showing a better understanding of the mechanisms of toxicity of these insecticides in vertebrates and their deleterious impacts on growth, reproduction, and neurobehaviour of most of the species tested. This review concludes with a summary of impacts on the ecosystem services and functioning, particularly on pollination, soil biota, and aquatic invertebrate communities, thus reinforcing the previous WIA conclusions (van der Sluijs et al. 2015).en_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleAn update of the Worldwide Integrated Assessment (WIA) on systemic insecticides. Part 2: impacts on organisms and ecosystemsen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.rights.holderCopyright the authors 2017en_US
dc.source.journalEnvironmental science and pollution research internationalen_US
dc.identifier.citationEnvironmental science and pollution research international. 2021, 28, 11749-11797.en_US

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