Resampling of ENSO teleconnections: accounting for cold-season evolution reduces uncertainty in the North Atlantic
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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Original versionWeather and Climate Dynamics. 2021, 2 (3), 759-776. 10.5194/wcd-2-759-2021
We re-examine the uncertainty of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) teleconnection to the North Atlantic following the investigation of Deser et al. (2017) (DES2017). Our analyses are performed on the November–December (ND) and January–February (JF) means separately and for a geographical area that covers a larger extent in the midlatitude North Atlantic than DES2017. The motivation for splitting the cold season in this way arises from the fact that the teleconnection patterns and underlying physical mechanisms are different in late fall compared to midwinter. As in DES2017, our main technique in quantifying the uncertainty is bootstrap resampling. Amplitudes and spatial correlations of the bootstrap samples are presented together effectively using Taylor diagrams. In addition to the confidence intervals calculated from Student's t tests and the percentiles of anomalous sea level pressure (SLP) values in the bootstrap samples, we also investigate additional confidence intervals using techniques that are not widely used in climate research but have different advantages. In contrast to the interpretation by DES2017, our results indicate that we can have confidence (at the 5 % significance level) in the patterns of the teleconnected SLP anomalies. The uncertainties in the amplitudes remain large, with the upper-percentile anomalies at up to 2 times those of the lower percentiles in the North Pacific and 2.8 times in the North Atlantic.