Gaming Behaviors and the Association with Sleep Duration, Social Jetlag, and Difficulties Falling Asleep among Norwegian Adolescents
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (IJERPH). 2022, 19 (3), 1765. 10.3390/ijerph19031765
The relationship between gaming and sleep is mostly informed by studies of addictive gaming behavior, thus limiting our understanding of sleep in the context of nonproblematic engaged gaming. The present study investigated whether addicted, problem, and engaged gaming behavior was associated with sleep duration, social jetlag, and difficulties falling asleep. The sample consisted of 13- and 16-year-old Norwegian adolescents (n = 3228) participating in the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey in 2018. Participants were categorized into addicted, problem, engaged, and normal/non-gaming behavior groups according to which GAS-7 criteria they fulfilled. Robust generalized linear mixed models with a random intercept for class ID were used to examine the association between the sleep variables and gaming behavior. Addicted gaming behavior was unfavorably associated with all sleep parameters. The findings for engaged gaming and problem gaming behavior were somewhat mixed. Engaged gamers slept less on weekends, less on weekdays for those aged 16, and experienced greater social jetlag compared to the normal/non-gaming group. Problem gamers experienced greater social jetlag and had higher odds of experiencing difficulties falling asleep. Overall, the results suggest that all types of gaming behaviors might harm sleep health, but to a greater extent for the addicted gamers.