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dc.contributor.authorMuilwijk, Morven
dc.contributor.authorStraneo, Fiammetta
dc.contributor.authorSlater, Donald A.
dc.contributor.authorSmedsrud, Lars Henrik
dc.contributor.authorHolte, James
dc.contributor.authorWood, Michael
dc.contributor.authorAndresen, Camilla S.
dc.contributor.authorHarden, Ben
dc.date.accessioned2022-06-08T08:23:04Z
dc.date.available2022-06-08T08:23:04Z
dc.date.created2022-05-27T14:26:11Z
dc.date.issued2022
dc.identifier.issn0022-3670
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/11250/2997824
dc.descriptionUnder embargo until: 2022-09-01en_US
dc.description.abstractMeltwater from Greenland is an important freshwater source for the North Atlantic Ocean, released into the ocean at the head of fjords in the form of runoff, submarine melt, and icebergs. The meltwater release gives rise to complex in-fjord transformations that result in its dilution through mixing with other water masses. The transformed waters, which contain the meltwater, are exported from the fjords as a new water mass Glacially Modified Water (GMW). Here we use summer hydrographic data collected from 2013 to 2019 in Upernavik, a major glacial fjord in northwest Greenland, to describe the water masses that flow into the fjord from the shelf and the exported GMWs. Using an optimum multi-parameter technique across multiple years we then show that GMW is composed of 57.8% ± 8.1% Atlantic Water (AW), 41.0% ± 8.3% Polar Water (PW), 1.0% ± 0.1% subglacial discharge, and 0.2% ± 0.2% submarine meltwater. We show that the GMW fractional composition cannot be described by buoyant plume theory alone since it includes lateral mixing within the upper layers of the fjord not accounted for by buoyant plume dynamics. Consistent with its composition, we find that changes in GMW properties reflect changes in the AW and PW source waters. Using the obtained dilution ratios, this study suggests that the exchange across the fjord mouth during summer is on the order of 50 mSv (1 Sv ≡ 106 m3 s−1) (compared to a freshwater input of 0.5 mSv). This study provides a first-order parameterization for the exchange at the mouth of glacial fjords for large-scale ocean models.en_US
dc.language.isoengen_US
dc.publisherAMSen_US
dc.titleExport of ice sheet meltwater from Upernavik fjord, West Greenlanden_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.description.versionpublishedVersionen_US
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2022 American Meteorological Societyen_US
cristin.ispublishedtrue
cristin.fulltextoriginal
cristin.qualitycode2
dc.identifier.doi10.1175/JPO-D-21-0084.1
dc.identifier.cristin2027748
dc.source.journalJournal of Physical Oceanographyen_US
dc.source.pagenumber363-382en_US
dc.identifier.citationJournal of Physical Oceanography. 2022, 52 (3), 363-382.en_US
dc.source.volume52en_US
dc.source.issue3en_US


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