High pain intensity is a risk factor of non-resolving TMD: A three-year follow-up of a patient group in a Norwegian interdisciplinary evaluation program
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonJournal of Pain Research. 2022, 15, 1283-1296. https://doi.org/10.2147/JPR.S341861
Purpose: To investigate the outcome of patients with long-term refractory temporomandibular disorders (TMD) three years after a Norwegian interdisciplinary evaluation program with attention to patient satisfaction, function, pain, and psychosocial variables. Patients and Methods: The study population consisted of 60 long-term refractory TMD patients who were investigated by a Norwegian interdisciplinary team. A questionnaire that covered medical history, function, pain, lifestyle factors, TMD-status and follow-up from their general medical practitioner (GMP) was sent to the patients three years after the evaluation. Questionnaires that assessed function (Mandibular Functional Index Questionnaire [MFIQ] and Roland Morrison Scale [RMS]), pain intensity (General Pain Intensity questionnaire [GPI]) and psychosocial factors (Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale [HADS]); a 2-item version of the Coping Strategies Questionnaire [CSQ]) were included in the package. Results: Thirty-nine out of 60 TMD patients completed the questionnaires. Improvements in TMD symptoms were reported in 10 patients (26%), were unchanged in 16 patients (41%) and worsened in 13 patients (33%). Only 8 patients (21%) were satisfied with the follow-up of the suggested treatments from their GMP. Significant improvements of symptoms were noted in MFIQ (jaw function), GPI (including pain intensity at maximum and suffering from pain), and CSQ (pain related catastrophizing), in all 39 TMD patients as one group. However, a subgroup analysis showed that the significant improvements were mostly within patients who reported improvement of TMD symptoms. A high pain intensity at baseline was a significant risk factor (OR = 5 .79, 95% CI: 1.34, 24.96) for patients who reported worsening of TMD symptoms at follow-up. Conclusion: High pain intensity at baseline was a significant risk factor for poorer recovery three years after an interdisciplinary evaluation. Our data support the notion that improved coping with TMD pain includes both decreased pain intensity, CSQ and MFIQ scores.