Vitamin D, oral health, and disease characteristics in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: a multicenter cross-sectional study
Cetrelli, Lena Elisabet; Bletsa, Athanasia; Lundestad, Anette; Gil, Elisabeth Grut; Fischer, Johannes Maria; Halbig, Josefine Mareile; Frid, Paula Hanna Therese; Angenete, Oskar W; Lien, Ingrid Lillevoll; Rosén, Annika; Tylleskär, Karin; Luukko, Keijo; Nordal, Ellen Berit; Åstrøm, Anne-Kristine N; Skeie, Marit Slåttelid; Feuerherm, Astrid Jullumstrø; Sen, Abhijit; Rygg, Marite
Journal article, Peer reviewed
MetadataShow full item record
Original versionBMC Oral Health. 2022, 22, 333. 10.1186/s12903-022-02349-1
Background Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with autoimmune diseases and oral health. Knowledge about the association between vitamin D status and oral conditions in JIA is limited. We aimed to investigate vitamin D status in a cohort of Norwegian children and adolescents with JIA and possible associations between serum vitamin D levels, clinical indicators of oral health, and JIA disease characteristics. Methods This multi-center, cross-sectional study, included individuals with JIA aged 4–16 years from three geographically spread regions in Norway. Demographic data, age at disease onset, disease duration, JIA category, disease status, medication, and vitamin D intake were registered. One blood sample per individual was analyzed for 25(OH) vitamin D, and the level of insufficiency was defined as < 50 nmol/L. A clinical oral examination was performed applying commonly used indices in epidemiological studies of dental caries, dental erosion, enamel defects, gingival bleeding, and oral hygiene. Serum vitamin D was used as exposure variable in multivariable regression analyses to estimate the associations between insufficient vitamin D level, JIA disease status, and oral conditions, with adjustments for age, sex, geographical region, BMI, seasonal blood sampling, and parental education. Results Among the 223 participants with JIA, 97.3% were Caucasians, 59.2% were girls, and median age was 12.6 years. Median disease duration was 4.6 years, and 44.4% had oligoarticular JIA. Mean serum vitamin D level was 61.4 nmol/L and 29.6% had insufficient levels. Vitamin D levels did not differ between sexes, but between regions, iso-BMI categories, age groups, and seasons for blood sampling. Insufficient vitamin D levels were associated with dentin caries (adjusted OR 2.89, 95% CI 1.43–5.86) and gingival bleeding (adjusted OR 2.36, 95% CI 1.10–5.01). No associations were found with active JIA disease or more severe disease characteristics. Conclusion In our study, nearly 30% had vitamin D insufficiency, with a particularly high prevalence among adolescents. Vitamin D insufficiency was associated with dentin caries and gingival bleeding, but not with JIA disease activity. These results point to the need for a multidisciplinary approach in the follow-up of children with JIA, including an increased focus on vitamin D status and oral health.