Accurate and Automated High-Coverage Identification of Chemically Cross-Linked Peptides with MaxLynx
Journal article, Peer reviewed
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OriginalversjonAnalytical Chemistry. 2022, 94 (3), 1608–1617. 10.1021/acs.analchem.1c03688
Cross-linking combined with mass spectrometry (XL-MS) provides a wealth of information about the three-dimensional (3D) structure of proteins and their interactions. We introduce MaxLynx, a novel computational proteomics workflow for XL-MS integrated into the MaxQuant environment. It is applicable to noncleavable and MS-cleavable cross-linkers. For both, we have generalized the Andromeda peptide database search engine to efficiently identify cross-linked peptides. For noncleavable peptides, we implemented a novel dipeptide Andromeda score, which is the basis for a computationally efficient N-squared search engine. Additionally, partial scores summarize the evidence for the two constituents of the dipeptide individually. A posterior error probability (PEP) based on total and partial scores is used to control false discovery rates (FDRs). For MS-cleavable cross-linkers, a score of signature peaks is combined with the conventional Andromeda score on the cleavage products. The MaxQuant 3D peak detection was improved to ensure more accurate determination of the monoisotopic peak of isotope patterns for heavy molecules, which cross-linked peptides typically are. A wide selection of filtering parameters can replace the manual filtering of identifications, which is often necessary when using other pipelines. On benchmark data sets of synthetic peptides, MaxLynx outperforms all other tested software on data for both types of cross-linkers and on a proteome-wide data set of cross-linked Drosophila melanogaster cell lysate. The workflow also supports ion mobility-enhanced MS data. MaxLynx runs on Windows and Linux, contains an interactive viewer for displaying annotated cross-linked spectra, and is freely available at https://www.maxquant.org/.