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dc.contributor.authorTakvam, Marius
dc.contributor.authorSundell, Kristina
dc.contributor.authorSundh, Henrik
dc.contributor.authorGharbi, Naouel
dc.contributor.authorKryvi, Harald
dc.contributor.authorNilsen, Tom Ole
dc.description.abstractThe Na+, K+ ATPase (NKA) enzyme is important to generate the transmembrane ion gradient in the gills, intestine, and kidneys, hence, is vital for secondary transport of fluids and different solutes in teleosts. Gill NKA enzyme activity is often used as a proxy for parr–smolt transformation (PST) during which anadromous salmonids prepare for seawater (SW). Increased intensification and production of larger smolts in modern salmonid aquaculture has resulted in reports of gill NKA activity being less reliable as a proxy for smolt quality. Consequently, changes in mRNA nka-α1b/α1a ratios in gills are increasingly used as indicators of PST. However, nka isoform mRNA abundance may not reflect translation into the functional protein, nor the activity of the mature enzyme. This may limit the predictive power of molecular markers under certain environmental conditions, rearing regimes and biological scenarios. During PST, the osmoregulatory transformations necessary for SW tolerance and survival does not only occur in the gills. Equally important are the changes in ion transporting activities, including NKA activity, in the intestine and kidneys. However, to our knowledge, there are no previous studies addressing the timing and concurrent changes in NKA activity in the three osmoregulatory tissue during PST. Here we present modifications and optimization of the NKA enzyme activity protocols for gill, intestinal and kidney tissue and outline how to best utilize NKA activity measurements as part of a more holistic approach to evaluate overall smolt quality in modern aquaculture.en_US
dc.rightsNavngivelse-Ikkekommersiell 4.0 Internasjonal*
dc.titleNew wine in old bottles: Modification of the Na+/K+-ATPase enzyme activity assay and its application in salmonid aquacultureen_US
dc.typeJournal articleen_US
dc.typePeer revieweden_US
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2023 The Author(s)en_US
dc.source.journalReviews in Aquacultureen_US
dc.identifier.citationReviews in Aquaculture. 2023en_US

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Navngivelse-Ikkekommersiell 4.0 Internasjonal
Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Navngivelse-Ikkekommersiell 4.0 Internasjonal