Multiplex Analysis of Pro- or Anti-Inflammatory Serum Cytokines and Chemokines in relation to Gender and Age among Tanzanian Tuberculous Lymphadenitis Patients
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Objectives. Tuberculous lymphadenitis is the most common formof extrapulmonary tuberculosis (TB) with a female and paediatric preponderance, postulated to be due to differences in the immune response. The aim of this study was to analyze the differences in the serum cytokine levels of tuberculous lymphadenitis patients with respect to age and gender. Methods. A multiplex bead-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure IFN-𝛾, TNF-𝛼, GM-CSF, IL-1𝛽, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, and IL-17 levels in sera of patients (𝑛 = 86) and healthy controls (𝑛 = 23). Results. Levels of IFN-𝛾, TNF-𝛼, GM-CSF, IL-1𝛽, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-6 were higher in adult patients than in controls, while those of IL-12 were lower (𝑃 < 0.05). Children had lower levels of TNF-𝛼, GM-CSF, and IL-5 and higher levels of IL-2 compared with adult patients (𝑃 < 0.05). The male adult patients had higher levels of IL-17 and lower levels of IL-12 compared with female adult patients (𝑃 < 0.05). Conclusion.There were significant differences in the levels of circulating cytokines with respect to gender and age. Children had generally lower levels of cytokines as compared to adults, which could make them more susceptible. Findings do not support that female preponderance is due to differences in immune response.