"I Need Some Space!" - Combining Digital and Traditional Methods in the Planning of Public Open Space
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- Department of Geography 
This thesis explores the use of multiple methods, or triangulation, in the planning of public open space (POS). The focus is on how the Space Syntax method of integration analysis can be combined with other GIS methods, and the more traditional method of observation. The study uses the city of Bergen, Norway as a case, on three different scale levels, from the individual POS to the city centre as a whole. The main objective of the study is to explore what makes a good public open space, and how planners best can combine GIS, Space Syntax and traditional methods to plan it. The study has shown that there are a number of different ways to use the methods, and a number of criteria by which one can evaluate the quality of public open spaces. The study has also shown that different types of POS should fulfil these criteria in different ways to be successful, especially on the subject of their location in highly or poorly integrated streets. Furthermore, this study demonstrates that there is an element of scale to be considered when using Space Syntax in physical planning, where the level of detail in the axial maps should differ when working on different scales of the city. If on the right scale, integration analyses can be used to show potential flows and paths through spaces for pedestrians or motorised vehicles. If scaled incorrectly, integration analyses may display potential flows incorrectly. The method triangulation of the thesis has found that combining integration analyses with GIS and observation may uncover inconsistencies and shortcomings in the methodologies used. Viewshed analyses showed that in areas with uneven terrain, axial lines may not correctly represent sight lines. Combining integration analyses with observation may uncover meanings and uses of spaces, verify if spaces amount to their potential, and help explain why they do or do not. This is something the digital tools can not. The thesis further discusses these topics, and suggest ways to integrate Space Syntax with GIS and observation, for use in planning of public open spaces.