The Atlantic salmon genome provides insights into rediploidization
Lien, Sigbjørn; Koop, Ben F; Sandve, Simen Rød; Miller, Jason R.; Kent, Matthew Peter; Nome, Torfinn; Hvidsten, Torgeir Rhoden; Leong, Jong; Minkley, David R.; Zimin, Aleksey; Grammes, Fabian; Grove, Harald; Gjuvsland, Arne Bjørke; Walenz, Brian; Hermansen, Russell A.; von Schalburg, Kristian R.; Rondeau, Eric; Genova, Alex Di; Antony Samy, Jeevan Karloss; Vik, Jon Olav; Vigeland, Magnus Dehli; Caler, Lis; Grimholt, Unni; Jentoft, Sissel; Våge, Dag Inge; de Jong, Pieter J.; Moen, Thomas; Baranski, Matthew; Palti, Yniv; Smith, Douglas W.; Yorke, James A.; Nederbragt, Alexander J.; Tooming-Klunderud, Ave; Jakobsen, Kjetill Sigurd; Jiang, Xuanting; Fan, Dingding; Hu, Yan; Liberles, David A.; Vidal, Rodrigo; Iturra, Patricia; Jones, Steven J.M.; Jonassen, Inge; Maass, Alejandro; Omholt, Stig William; Davidson, William S
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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The whole-genome duplication 80 million years ago of the common ancestor of salmonids (salmonid-specific fourth vertebrate whole-genome duplication, Ss4R) provides unique opportunities to learn about the evolutionary fate of a duplicated vertebrate genome in 70 extant lineages. Here we present a high-quality genome assembly for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), and show that large genomic reorganizations, coinciding with bursts of transposon-mediated repeat expansions, were crucial for the post-Ss4R rediploidization process. Comparisons of duplicate gene expression patterns across a wide range of tissues with orthologous genes from a pre-Ss4R outgroup unexpectedly demonstrate far more instances of neofunctionalization than subfunctionalization. Surprisingly, we find that genes that were retained as duplicates after the teleost-specific whole-genome duplication 320 million years ago were not more likely to be retained after the Ss4R, and that the duplicate retention was not influenced to a great extent by the nature of the predicted protein interactions of the gene products. Finally, we demonstrate that the Atlantic salmon assembly can serve as a reference sequence for the study of other salmonids for a range of purposes.