Horizontal Reciprocal Radicalization. A comparative analysis of two cases in a Norwegian context
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In 2006, Roger Eatwell introduced the concept of “Cumulative Extremism”, after he observed violent clashes between radical right- and radical Islamist groups in Britain. In 2012, their sister groups, Profetens Ummah and the Norwegian Defence League, established themselves in Norway. However, in contrast to the British case, they never displayed any signs of inter-group radicalization. This dissertation has two main contributions. First, it introduces a new concept: Horizontal Reciprocal Radicalization. Second, it analyzes two cases of inter-group radicalization through three independent variables, which dependent on their temporal state, act either as limiting or facilitating political opportunity structures for “HRR”. The comparative analysis indicates that ideologies, counter-radicalization measures and inter-group competition functioned as limiting political opportunity structures for inter-group radicalization between Profetens Ummah and the Norwegian Defence League in the period 2012-2014. The thesis finds the same variables to be facilitating opportunity structures for similar processes between neo-Nazi and anti-racist factions in the 1990s/2000s.