Daily transformational leadership and employee job crafting: The role of promotion focus
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Original versionHetland J, Hetland H, Bakker AB, Demerouti E. Daily transformational leadership and employee job crafting: The role of promotion focus. European Management Journal. 2018;36(6):745-756 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.emj.2018.01.002
Transformational leaders are expected to challenge their followers to take greater ownership of their work, allowing the leader to align followers with tasks that enhance their performance. In the present study, we hypothesize that transformational leadership is positively related to followers' job-crafting behaviour – proactive behaviour aimed at optimizing job demands and job resources. Moreover, we argue that followers' promotion focus (i.e. being driven by growth and development needs) positively moderates this relationship. Data were collected from 107 employees from Norwegian knowledge-based organizations (response = 93.2%). Participants responded to a general questionnaire and five daily diary questionnaires (total N = 535 occasions). The results of multilevel analyses revealed partial support for our hypotheses. Followers' day-level perception of their leader's transformational behaviour was positively related to followers' day-level job crafting in the form of increasing structural and social resources. Moreover, daily transformational leadership was particularly beneficial for job crafting when followers scored high (vs. low) on the trait promotion focus. We conclude that transformational leaders can encourage their followers' use of job crafting, and that employees' promotion focus facilitates this effect.