HIV-1 disease progression in immune-competent HIV-1-infected and breastfeeding mothers participating in the ANRS 12174 clinical trial in Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia: a cohort study
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Objective: We have assessed HIV-1 disease progression among HIV-1-positive mothers in relation to duration of any or exclusive breast feeding in the context of ANRS 12174 trial. Methods: The analysis was completed on 203, 212, 272 and 529 HIV-1-positive and lactating mothers with CD4 count >350 cells/µL from Burkina Faso, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia, respectively. The trial compared lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir as a peri-exposure prophylaxis during a 50-week follow-up time. A multiple logistic regression model was run with the mothers’ weight, CD4 count and HIV-1 viral load as separate dependent variables, then combined into a dependent composite endpoint called HIV-1 disease progression where HIV-1 viral load was replaced by the HIV-1 clinical stage. Exclusive or predominant breast feeding (EPBF) and any breastfeeding duration were the key explanatory variables. Results: In the adjusted model, the associations between EPBF duration and weight change, CD4 cell count and the HIV-1 viral load were consistently insignificant. The CD4 cell count was associated with a significantly higher mothers’ body mass index (BMI; a mean increase of 4.9 (95% CI 2.1 to 7.7) CD4 cells/µL per each additional kilogram per square metre of BMI) and haemoglobin concentration (19.4 (95% CI 11.4 to 27.4) CD4 cells/µL per each additional gram per decilitre of haemoglobin concentration). There was no significant association between EPBF duration and HIV-1 disease progression. A higher education level was a factor associated with a slower HIV-1 disease progression. Conclusion: Breast feeding was not a risk factor for a faster progression of HIV-1 disease in mothers of this cohort with a baseline CD4 cell count >350 cells/µL.