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dc.contributor.authorTrieu, Mai Chien_US
dc.contributor.authorZhou, Fanen_US
dc.contributor.authorJalloh, Sarah Larteley Larteyen_US
dc.contributor.authorSridhar, Saranyaen_US
dc.contributor.authorMjaaland, Sirien_US
dc.contributor.authorCox, Rebecca Janeen_US
dc.PublishedTrieu MC, Zhou F, Jalloh SL, Sridhar S, Mjaaland S, Cox RJ. Augmented CD4+ T-cell and humoral responses after repeated annual influenza vaccination with the same vaccine component A/H1N1pdm09 over 5 years. npj Vaccines. 2018;3:37eng
dc.description.abstractAnnual seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended for high-risk populations and often occupational groups such as healthcare workers (HCWs). Repeated annual vaccination has been reported to either have no impact or reduce antibody responses or protection. However, whether repeated vaccination influences T-cell responses has not been sufficiently studied, despite the increasing evidence of the protective roles of T-cell immunity. Here, we explored the impact of repeated annual vaccination with the same vaccine strain (H1N1pdm09) over multiple seasons in the post-2009 pandemic era and showed that repeated vaccination increased both T-cell and humoral responses. Using the T-cell FluroSpot and intracellular cytokine-staining, the hemagglutination inhibition (HI), and the memory B-cell (MBC) ELISpot assays, we investigated pre- and postvaccination T cells, antibodies, and MBCs in a cohort of HCWs repeatedly vaccinated with H1N1pdm09 for 5 years (pandemic vaccination in 2009 and subsequently annual seasonal vaccination containing H1N1pdm09 during 2010–2013). We found that the prevaccination H1N1pdm09-specific T cells, antibodies, and MBCs were significantly increased after 3–4 repeated vaccinations and maintained at high levels throughout seasons 2012 and 2013. The cross-reactive IFN-γ-secreting CD4^+ cells recognizing conserved viral external or internal epitopes were also maintained throughout 2012 and 2013. Repeated vaccination improved the multifunctional memory CD4+ responses. Particularly, the IFN-γ^+TNF-α^+CD4^+ T cells were boosted following each vaccination. HI antibodies were significantly induced after each vaccination over 5 years. Our findings indicate a broad impact of repeated annual vaccination, even with the same vaccine component, on the influenza-specific T-cell and humoral immunity and support the continuing recommendation of annual influenza vaccination.en_US
dc.publisherNature Researcheng
dc.rightsAttribution CC BYeng
dc.titleAugmented CD4+ T-cell and humoral responses after repeated annual influenza vaccination with the same vaccine component A/H1N1pdm09 over 5 yearsen_US
dc.typePeer reviewed
dc.typeJournal article
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2018 The Authors
dc.source.journalnpj Vaccines
dc.relation.projectNorges forskningsråd: 271160
dc.identifier.citationnpj Vaccines. 2018, 3, 37.

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