S100 proteins in acute myeloid leukemia
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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The S100 protein family contains 20 functionally expressed members, which are commonly dysregulated in cancer. Their wide range of functions includes cell proliferation, cell differentiation, regulation of transcription factors, inflammation, chemotaxis, and angiogenesis. S100 proteins have in several types of cancer proven to be biomarkers for disease progression and prognosis. Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a highly heterogeneous and aggressive disease in which immature myeloblasts replace normal hematopoietic cells in the bone marrow. This review focuses on the S100 protein family members, which commonly are dysregulated in AML, and on the consequences of their dysregulation in the disorder. Like in other cancers, it appears as if S100 proteins are potential biomarkers for leukemogenesis. Furthermore, several S100 members seem to be involved in maintaining the leukemic phenotype. For these reasons, specific S100 proteins might serve as prognostic biomarkers, especially in the patient subset with intermediate/undetermined risk, and as potential targets for patient-adjusted therapy. Because the question of the most suitable candidate S100 biomarkers in AML still is under discussion, because particular AML subgroups lead to specific S100 signatures, and because downstream effects and the significance of co-expression of potential S100 binding partners in AML are not fully elucidated yet, we conclude that a panel of S100 proteins will probably be best suited for prognostic purposes.