Knowledge of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance among Norwegian pharmacy customers – a cross-sectional study
Peer reviewed, Journal article
MetadataShow full item record
Background: Antibiotic resistance is a global health threat. Public knowledge is considered a prerequisite for appropriate use of antibiotics and limited spread of antibiotic resistance. Our aim was to examine the level of knowledge of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance among Norwegian pharmacy customers, and to assess to which degree beliefs, attitudes and sociodemographic factors are associated with this knowledge. Methods: A questionnaire based, cross-sectional study was conducted among pharmacy customers in three Norwegian cities. The questionnaire covered 1) knowledge of antibiotics (13 statements) and antibiotic resistance (10 statements), 2) the general beliefs about medicines questionnaire (BMQ general) (three subdomains, four statements each), 3) attitudes toward antibiotic use (four statements), and 4) sociodemographic factors, life style and health. High knowledge level was defined as > 66% of maximum score. Factors associated with knowledge of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance were investigated through univariate and multiple linear regression. Hierarchical model regression was used to estimate a population average knowledge score weighted for age, gender and level of education. Results: Among 877 participants, 57% had high knowledge of antibiotics in general and 71% had high knowledge of antibiotic resistance. More than 90% knew that bacteria can become resistant against antibiotics and that unnecessary use of antibiotics can make them less effective. Simultaneously, more than 30% erroneously stated that antibiotics are effective against viruses, colds or influenza. Factors positively associated with antibiotic knowledge were health professional background, high education level, and a positive view on the value of medications in general. Male gender, a less restrictive attitude toward antibiotic use, and young age were negatively associated with antibiotic knowledge. The mean overall antibiotic knowledge score was relatively high (15.6 out of maximum 23 with estimated weighted population score at 14.8). Conclusions: Despite a high level of knowledge of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance among Norwegian pharmacy customers, there are obvious knowledge gaps. We suggest that action is taken to increase the knowledge level, and particularly target people in vocational, male dominated occupations outside the health service, and primary/secondary school curricula.
JournalBMC Public Health
CopyrightCopyright 2019 The Author(s)
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
Bridging the evidence gap for implementing antibiotic stewardship in Norway: Interventions, process measures and patient outcomes related to antibiotic prescribing in hospitals Wathne, Jannicke Slettli (Doctoral thesis, 2019-12-09)Background: Antimicrobial resistance is a major challenge for patient safety worldwide, as a growing number of infections become difficult to treat and the advances made in modern medicine are threatened. Overuse and misuse ...
Identifying targets for antibiotic stewardship interventions through analysis of the antibiotic prescribing process in hospitals - a multicentre observational cohort study Wathne, Jannicke Slettli; Skodvin, Brita; Charani, Esmita; Harthug, Stig; Blix, Hege Salvesen; Nilsen, Roy Miodini; Kleppe, Lars Kåre Selland; Vukovic, Marta; Smith, Ingrid (Journal article; Peer reviewed, 2020)Background: In order to change antibiotic prescribing behaviour, we need to understand the prescribing process. The aim of this study was to identify targets for antibiotic stewardship interventions in hospitals through ...
Addressing the threat of AMR in Norway: optimising antibiotic prescribing and microbiology testing in hospitals Skodvin, Brita (Doctoral thesis, 2019-06-14)Increasing antimicrobial resistance rates are recognised as a global public health threat and many efforts are being undertaken to curb this development. One important measure is to optimise the use of antibiotics and ...