Left ventricular hypertrophy contributes to Myocardial Ischemia in Non-obstructive Coronary Artery Disease (the MicroCAD study)
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Background: The underlying mechanisms causing myocardial ischemia in non-obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) are still unclear. We explored whether left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) was associated with myocardial ischemia in patients with stable angina and non-obstructive CAD. Methods: 132 patients (mean age 63 ± 8 years, 56% women) with stable angina and non-obstructive CAD diagnosed as <50% stenosis by coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) underwent myocardial contrast stress echocardiography. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy (LVH) was identified by LV mass index >46.7 g/m2.7 in women and >49.2 g/m2.7 in men. Patients were grouped according to presence or absence of myocardial ischemia by myocardial contrast stress echocardiography. The number of LV segments with ischemia at peak stress was taken as a measure of the extent of myocardial ischemia. Results: Myocardial ischemia was found in 52% of patients, with on average 5 ± 3 ischemic LV segments per patient. The group with myocardial ischemia had higher prevalence of LVH (23 vs. 10%, p = 0.035), while age, sex and prevalence of hypertension did not differ between groups (all p > 0.05). In multivariable regression analyses, LVH was associated with presence of myocardial ischemia (odds ratio 3.27, 95% confidence interval [1.11–9.60], p = 0.031), and larger extent of myocardial ischemia (β = 0.22, p = 0.012), independent of confounders including age, hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, calcium score and segment involvement score by CCTA. Conclusions: LVH was independently associated with both presence and extent of myocardial ischemia in patients with stable angina and non-obstructive CAD by CCTA. These results suggest LVH as an independent contributor to myocardial ischemia in non-obstructive CAD.