Long-term treatment with the pan-PPAR agonist tetradecylthioacetic acid or fish oil is associated with increased cardiac content of n-3 fatty acids in rat
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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Background: Excess peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) stimulation has been associated with detrimental health effects including impaired myocardial function. Recently, supplementation with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) has been associated with improved left ventricular function and functional capacity in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. We investigated the long-term effects of the pan-PPAR agonist tetradecylthioacetic acid (TTA) and/or high-dose fish oil (FO) on cardiac fatty acid (FA) composition and lipid metabolism. Male Wistar rats were given one out of four different 25% (w/v) fat diets: control diet; TTA diet; FO diet; or diet containing both TTA and FO. Results: After 50 weeks n-3 PUFA levels were increased by TTA and FO in the heart, whereas liver levels were reduced following TTA administration. TTA was associated with a decrease in arachidonic acid, increased activities of carnitine palmitoyltransferase II, fatty acyl-CoA oxidase, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase, and fatty acid synthase in the heart. Furthermore, cardiac Ucp3 and Cact mRNA was upregulated. Conclusions: Long-term treatment with the pan-PPAR agonist TTA or high-dose FO induced marked changes in PUFA composition and enzymatic activity involved in FA metabolism in the heart, different from liver. Changes included increased FA oxidation and a selective increase in cardiac n-3 PUFA.