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dc.contributor.authorSollid, Stephen J. M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorRimstad, Runeen_US
dc.contributor.authorRehn, Mariusen_US
dc.contributor.authorNakstad, Anders R.en_US
dc.contributor.authorTomlinson, Ann-Elinen_US
dc.contributor.authorStrand, Terjeen_US
dc.contributor.authorHeimdal, Hans Juliusen_US
dc.contributor.authorNilsen, Jan Eriken_US
dc.contributor.authorSandberg, Mårtenen_US
dc.contributor.authorCollaborating groupen_US
dc.PublishedScandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine 2012, 20:3eng
dc.description.abstractBackground: On July 22, 2011, a single perpetrator killed 77 people in a car bomb attack and a shooting spree incident in Norway. This article describes the emergency medical service (EMS) response elicited by the two incidents. Methods: A retrospective and observational study was conducted based on data from the EMS systems involved and the public domain. The study was approved by the Data Protection Official and was defined as a quality improvement project. Results: We describe the timeline and logistics of the EMS response, focusing on alarm, dispatch, initial response, triage and evacuation. The scenes in the Oslo government district and at Utøya island are described separately. Conclusions: Many EMS units were activated and effectively used despite the occurrence of two geographically separate incidents within a short time frame. Important lessons were learned regarding triage and evacuation, patient flow and communication, the use of and need for emergency equipment and the coordination of helicopter EMS.en_US
dc.publisherBioMed Centraleng
dc.rightsAttribution CC BYeng
dc.subjectMass Casualty Incidentseng
dc.subjectPrehospital Emergency Careeng
dc.titleOslo government district bombing and Utøya island shooting July 22, 2011: The immediate prehospital emergency medical service responseen_US
dc.typePeer reviewed
dc.typeJournal article
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2012 Sollid et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
dc.source.journalScandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine

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