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dc.contributor.authorKessler, Uteen_US
dc.contributor.authorSchøyen, Helle Kristineen_US
dc.contributor.authorAndreassen, Ole Andreasen_US
dc.contributor.authorEide, Geir Egilen_US
dc.contributor.authorHammar, Åsaen_US
dc.contributor.authorMalt, Ulrik F.en_US
dc.contributor.authorØdegaard, Ketil Joachimen_US
dc.contributor.authorMorken, Gunnaren_US
dc.contributor.authorSundet, Kjetilen_US
dc.contributor.authorVaaler, Arne E.en_US
dc.description.abstractBackground: The literature on the neuropsychological profiles in Bipolar disorder (BD) depression is sparse. The aims of the study were to assess the neurocognitive profiles in treatment-resistant, acutely admitted BD depression inpatients, to compare the neurocognitive functioning in patients with BD I and II, and to identify the demographic and clinical illness characteristics associated with cognitive functioning. Methods: Acutely admitted BD I (n = 19) and BD II (n = 32) inpatients who fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria for a major depressive episode were tested with the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB), the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence, the National Adult Reading Test, and a battery of clinical measures. Results: Neurocognitive impairments were evident in the BD I and BD II depression inpatients within all MCCB domains. The numerical scores on all MCCB-measures were lower in the BD I group than in the BD II group, with a significant difference on one of the measures, category fluency. 68.4% of the BD I patients had clinically significant impairment (>1.5 SD below normal mean) in two or more domains compared to 37.5% of the BD II patients (p = 0.045). A significant reduction in IQ from the premorbid to the current level was seen in BD I but not BD II patients. Higher age was associated with greater neurocognitive deficits compared to age-adjusted published norms. Conclusions: A high proportion of patients with therapy-resistant BD I or II depression exhibited global neurocognitive impairments with clinically significant severity. The cognitive impairments were more common in BD I compared to BD II patients, particularly processing speed. These findings suggest that clinicians should be aware of the severe neurocognitive dysfunction in treatment-resistant bipolar depression, particularly in BD I.en_US
dc.publisherBioMed Centraleng
dc.relation.ispartof<a href="" target="blank">Electroconvulsive therapy for bipolar disorder depression. Effects on depressive symptoms and cognitive function</a>eng
dc.rightsAttribution CC BYeng
dc.subjectBipolar disorder depressioneng
dc.subjectCognitive functioningeng
dc.subjectBipolar II disordereng
dc.titleNeurocognitive profiles in treatment-resistant bipolar I and bipolar II disorder depressionen_US
dc.typePeer reviewed
dc.typeJournal article
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2013 Kessler et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
dc.rights.holderUte Kessler et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
dc.source.journalBMC Psychiatry

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