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dc.contributor.authorWatson, Martin Men_US
dc.contributor.authorBerg, Marianneen_US
dc.contributor.authorSøreide, Kjetilen_US
dc.description.abstractElevated microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotides (EMAST), a variation of microsatellite instability (MSI), has been reported in a variety of malignancies (e.g., neoplasias of the lung, head and neck, colorectal region, skin, urinary tract and reproductive organs). EMAST is more prominent at organ sites with potential external exposure to carcinogens (e.g., head, neck, lung, urinary bladder and colon), although the specific molecular mechanisms leading to EMAST remain elusive. Because it is often associated with advanced stages of malignancy, EMAST may be a consequence of rapid cell proliferation and increased mutagenesis. Moreover, defects in DNA mismatch repair enzyme complexes, TP53 mutation status and peritumoural inflammation involving T cells have been described in EMAST tumours. At various tumour sites, EMAST and high-frequency MSI share no clinicopathological features or molecular mechanisms, suggesting their existence as separate entities. Thus EMAST should be explored, because its presence in human cells may reflect both increased risk and the potential for early detection. In particular, the potential use of EMAST in prognosis and prediction may yield novel types of therapeutic intervention, particularly those involving the immune system. This review will summarise the current information concerning EMAST in cancer to highlight the knowledge gaps that require further research.en_US
dc.publisherNature Publishing Groupeng
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike CC BY-NC-SAeng
dc.subjectTetranucleotide repeatseng
dc.subjectmicrosatellite repeatseng
dc.subjectmicrosatellite instabilityeng
dc.subjectDNA mismatch repaireng
dc.subjectsolid tumourseng
dc.subjectT cellseng
dc.subjectcancer early detectioneng
dc.titlePrevalence and implications of elevated microsatellite alterations at selected tetranucleotides in canceren_US
dc.typePeer reviewed
dc.typeJournal article
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2014 Cancer Research UK
dc.source.journalBritish Journal of Cancer

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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike CC BY-NC-SA