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dc.contributor.authorParaskevis, Dimitriosen_US
dc.contributor.authorPybus, Oliveren_US
dc.contributor.authorMagiorkinis, Gkikasen_US
dc.contributor.authorHatzakis, Angelosen_US
dc.contributor.authorWensing, Annemarie M. J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorvan de Vijver, David A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorAlbert, Janen_US
dc.contributor.authorAngarano, Guiseppeen_US
dc.contributor.authorÅsjø, Birgittaen_US
dc.contributor.authorBalotta, Claudiaen_US
dc.contributor.authorBoeri, Enzoen_US
dc.contributor.authorCamacho, Ricardoen_US
dc.contributor.authorChaix, Marie-Laureen_US
dc.contributor.authorCoughlan, Suzieen_US
dc.contributor.authorCostagliola, Dominiqueen_US
dc.contributor.authorDe Luca, Andreaen_US
dc.contributor.authorde Mendoza, Carmenen_US
dc.contributor.authorDerdelinckx, Ingeen_US
dc.contributor.authorGrossman, Zehavaen_US
dc.contributor.authorHamouda, Osamaen_US
dc.contributor.authorHoepelman, I. M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorHorban, Andrzejen_US
dc.contributor.authorKorn, Klausen_US
dc.contributor.authorKücherer, Claudiaen_US
dc.contributor.authorLeitner, Thomasen_US
dc.contributor.authorLoveday, Cliveen_US
dc.contributor.authorMacRae, Eilidhen_US
dc.contributor.authorMaljkovic-Berry, I.en_US
dc.contributor.authorMeyer, Laurenceen_US
dc.contributor.authorNielsen, Clausen_US
dc.contributor.authorOp de Coul, Eline L. M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorOrmaasen, Vidaren_US
dc.contributor.authorPerrin, Lucen_US
dc.contributor.authorPuchhammer-Stöckl, Elisabethen_US
dc.contributor.authorRuiz, Lidiaen_US
dc.contributor.authorSalminen, Mika O.en_US
dc.contributor.authorSchmit, Jean-Claudeen_US
dc.contributor.authorSchuurman, Roben_US
dc.contributor.authorSoriano, Vincenten_US
dc.contributor.authorStanczak, J.en_US
dc.contributor.authorStanojevic, Majaen_US
dc.contributor.authorStruck, Danielen_US
dc.contributor.authorVan Laethem, Kristelen_US
dc.contributor.authorViolin, M.en_US
dc.contributor.authorYerly, Sabineen_US
dc.contributor.authorZazzi, Maurizioen_US
dc.contributor.authorBoucher, Charles A.en_US
dc.contributor.authorVandamme, Anne-Miekeen_US
dc.contributor.authorthe SPREAD Programmeen_US
dc.description.abstractBackground: The prevalence and the origin of HIV-1 subtype B, the most prevalent circulating clade among the long-term residents in Europe, have been studied extensively. However the spatial diffusion of the epidemic from the perspective of the virus has not previously been traced. Results: In the current study we inferred the migration history of HIV-1 subtype B by way of a phylogeography of viral sequences sampled from 16 European countries and Israel. Migration events were inferred from viral phylogenies by character reconstruction using parsimony. With regard to the spatial dispersal of the HIV subtype B sequences across viral phylogenies, in most of the countries in Europe the epidemic was introduced by multiple sources and subsequently spread within local networks. Poland provides an exception where most of the infections were the result of a single point introduction. According to the significant migratory pathways, we show that there are considerable differences across Europe. Specifically, Greece, Portugal, Serbia and Spain, provide sources shedding HIV-1; Austria, Belgium and Luxembourg, on the other hand, are migratory targets, while for Denmark, Germany, Italy, Israel, Norway, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and the UK we inferred significant bidirectional migration. For Poland no significant migratory pathways were inferred. Conclusion: Subtype B phylogeographies provide a new insight about the geographical distribution of viral lineages, as well as the significant pathways of virus dispersal across Europe, suggesting that intervention strategies should also address tourists, travellers and migrants.en_US
dc.publisherBioMed Centraleng
dc.rightsAttribution CC BYeng
dc.titleTracing the HIV-1 subtype B mobility in Europe: a phylogeographic approachen_US
dc.typePeer reviewed
dc.typeJournal article
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2009 Paraskevis et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd
dc.rights.holderDimitrios Paraskevis et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

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