Proteogenomics in Microbiology: Taking the Right Turn at the Junction of Genomics and Proteomics
Peer reviewed, Journal article
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High-accuracy and high-throughput proteomic methods have completely changed the way we can identify and characterize proteins. MS-based proteomics can now provide a unique supplement to genomic data and add a new level of information to the interpretation of genomic sequences. Proteomics-driven genome annotation has become especially relevant in microbiology where genomes are sequenced on a daily basis and limitations of an in silico driven annotation process are well recognized. In this review paper, we outline different strategies on how one can design a proteogenomic experiment, for example on genome-sequenced (synonymous proteogenomics) versus unsequenced organisms (ortho-proteogenomics) or with the aid of other "omic" data such as RNA-seq. We touch upon many challenges that are encountered during a typical proteogenomic study, mostly concerning bioinformatics methods and downstream data analysis, but also related to creation and use of sequence databases. A large list of proteogenomic case studies of different microorganisms is provided to illustrate the mapping of MS/MS-derived peptide spectra to genomic DNA sequences. These investigations have led to accurate determination of translational initiation sites, pointed out eventual read-throughs or programmed frameshifts, detected signal peptide processing or other protein maturation events, removed questionable annotation assignments, and provided evidence for predicted hypothetical proteins.