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dc.contributor.authorMohn, Kristin Greve Isdahlen_US
dc.contributor.authorBredholt, Geiren_US
dc.contributor.authorBrokstad, Karl Alberten_US
dc.contributor.authorPathirana, Rishien_US
dc.contributor.authorAarstad, Hans Jørgenen_US
dc.contributor.authorTøndel, Camillaen_US
dc.contributor.authorCox, Rebecca Janeen_US
dc.date.accessioned2015-05-15T07:22:55Z
dc.date.available2015-05-15T07:22:55Z
dc.date.issued2015-05-15eng
dc.identifier.issn0022-1899
dc.identifier.urihttps://hdl.handle.net/1956/9875
dc.description.abstractBackground. The live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is the preferred vaccine for children, but the mechanisms behind protective immune responses are unclear, and the duration of immunity remains to be elucidated. This study reports on the longevity of B-cell and T-cell responses elicited by the LAIV. Methods. Thirty-eight children (3–17 years old) were administered seasonal LAIV. Blood samples were collected before vaccination with sequential sampling up to 1 year after vaccination. Humoral responses were evaluated by a hemagglutination inhibition assay, and memory B-cell responses were evaluated by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot assay (ELISpot). T-cell responses were evaluated by interferon γ (IFN-γ) ELISpot analysis, and intracellular cytokine staining of CD4+ T cells for detection of IFN-γ, interleukin 2, and tumor necrosis factor α was performed using flow cytometry. Results. LAIV induced significant increases in B-cell and T-cell responses, which were sustained at least 1 year after vaccination. Strain variations were observed, in which the B strain elicited stronger responses. IFN-γ–expressing T cell counts increased significantly, and remained higher than prevaccination levels 1 year later. Expression of T-helper type 1 intracellular cytokines (interleukin 2, IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor α) increased after 1 dose and were boosted after the second dose. Hemagglutination inhibition titers were sustained for 1 year. Vaccine-induced memory B cell counts were significantly increased, and the response persisted for one year. Conclusions. LAIV elicited B-cell and T-cell responses that persisted for at least 1 year in children. This is a novel finding that will aid future vaccine policy.en_US
dc.language.isoengeng
dc.publisherOxford University Presseng
dc.rightsAttribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs CC BY-NC-NDeng
dc.rights.urihttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/eng
dc.subjectinfluenzaeng
dc.subjectLAIVeng
dc.subjecthumoraleng
dc.subjectT-cellulareng
dc.subjectlongevityeng
dc.subjectPediatriceng
dc.subjectIFN-γeng
dc.titleLongevity of B-cell and T-cell responses after live attenuated influenza vaccination in childrenen_US
dc.typePeer reviewed
dc.typeJournal article
dc.date.updated2015-04-08T11:54:54Zen_US
dc.description.versionpublishedVersionen_US
dc.rights.holderCopyright 2014 The Authors
dc.identifier.doihttps://doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiu654
dc.identifier.cristin1227236
dc.source.journalJournal of Infectious Diseases
dc.source.40211
dc.source.1410
dc.source.pagenumber1541-1549
dc.subject.nsiVDP::Medical sciences: 700::Clinical medical sciences: 750::Communicable diseases: 776eng
dc.subject.nsiVDP::Medisinske fag: 700::Klinisk medisinske fag: 750::Infeksjonsmedisin: 776nob


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