Bullying at work Antecedents and outcomes
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The synopsis: The present thesis is titled "Workplace bullying. Antecedents and outcomes". Hence, it focuses on work place bullying, which is a relatively new research topic within psychology. The synopsis part of the thesis clarifies the construct of bullying and its prevalence. Related concepts, such as the aggression construct, interpersonal conflicts, emotional abuse, and extreme social stress, are discussed with reference to bullying. Ten subtypes of bullying, that may constitute a useful categorization (among those, predatory bullying and whistleblowing retaliation bullying), are suggested. The prevalence of bullying is reviewed. In most countries, the rate varies between 5 and 10 per cent. Leaders are most prone to become bullies, in statistically terms. Possible antecedent and outcome factors of workplace bullying, as documented in the research literature, are listed. Antecedent and outcome examples that can be outlined are e.g. antecedent conditions such as authoritarian leadership style, organizational culture with a "sense of permission to harass" and outcome factors like turnover and psychiatric after effects. Five empirical papers are presented in the thesis. These are reviewed in the synopsis part. A research model is applied as a tool in order to integrate the presented papers with the field of research. The papers supplement different parts of the research model with empirical knowledge, knowledge that thus is added to the research field of workplace bullying. In addition, the synopsis part of the thesis discusses various methodological aspects, such as lack of longitudinal studies, the legal perspective, various research levels (among those, the individual and dyadic level), and the dose-response issue, that still have not been implemented within the bullying research. Suggestions for future research are made.
Paper I: Bullying, burnout and well-being among assistant nurses. S. Einarsen, S. Matthiesen and A. Skogstad. Journal of Occupational Health and Safety – Australia and New Zealand 1998, 14(6): 563-568Paper II: Full text restricted due to publisher policies. MMPI-2 configurations after persistent bullying at work. Stig Berge Matthiesen and Ståle Einarsen. European journal of work and organizational psychology 2001, 10(4), 467-484. Article is available for a fee at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13594320143000753Paper III: The escalation of conflict: a case study of bullying at work. Stig Berge Matthiesen, Elizabeth Aasen, Gisken Holst, Kenneth Wie and Ståle Einarsen. International Journal of Management and Decision Making 2003, 4(1). Published article is also available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJMDM.2003.002491Paper IV: Full text restricted due to publisher policies. Psychiatric distress and symptoms of PTSD after bullying at work. Stig Berge Matthiesen & Ståle Einarsen. British Journal of Guidance & Counselling, 2004 32(3). Full text is available for a fee at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03069880410001723558Paper V: Restricted access. Perpetrators and targets of bullying at work: Role stress and individual differences. Stig Berge Matthiesen & Ståle Einarsen. Submitted paper.