Maximising Organisational Information Sharing and Effective Intelligence Analysis in Critical Data Sets. A case study on the information science needs of the Norwegian criminal intelligence and law enforcement community
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Organisational information sharing has become more and more important as the amount of information grows. In order to accomplish the most effective and efficient sharing of information, analysis of the information needs and the organisation needs are vital. This dissertation focuses on the information needs sourced through the critical data sets of law enforcement organisations; specifically the Norwegian criminal intelligence and law enforcement community represented by the National Criminal Investigation Service (Kriminalpolitisentralen (Kripos)). Information sharing is particularly important in these communities due to consequences for alleged perpetrators, victims and witnesses. The theoretical framework starts with a brief investigation into the classical, mechanistic, and the systems worldviews before investigating different aspects of organisations; public administration; criminal justice organisations; an organisation’s internal structure and environment; and organisational culture. Today most information systems consist of both humans and computers, hence; an investigation into the concepts of data, information, knowledge, and information systems has been performed; review of different definitions; review of what a computerised information system is as opposed to knowledge systems or expert systems; examination of information systems in an organisational context; and investigation of information systems development particularly requirements gathering and analysis. The last subject in the theoretical investigation relates to investigation and analysis of criminal actions; define and distinguish the terms investigation and intelligence; examine how the concepts of data, information, and knowledge are used in criminal investigation; define and distinguish the different forms of law enforcement analysis; and last investigate eyewitness testimonies which, despite the many advances in forensic science, of many still considered the most important information source in criminal investigation. The empirical investigation at Kripos was performed using several different research methods aimed at qualitative aspects of the data followed by qualitative analysis. The theoretical views adopted in the research and the different data gathering methods allowed the researcher to explore information sharing throughout the organisation from both written and oral sources, and by doing so being able to; (1) identify possible communication break down points and specify an ideal communication pattern between different tribes (consisting of experts in the different fields needed in a criminal investigation); (2) develop an extended intelligence process which was mirrored in (3) the specification of the borders for the computerised information system, and (4) the developed conceptual data model for a computerised information system; (5) specify a log function for the computerised information system.